Example 3: Recognition of back pain after lifting of objects (cardboard worker for 20 years) The injured person worked purchase indinavir 400 mg without a prescription, for well over 20 years buy discount indinavir 400mg line, as a cardboard worker in a large industrial business buy indinavir 400mg mastercard. The work involved frequent lifts of cardboard units in bundles weighing from a few kilos to about 35 kilos, the average weight being 15-20 kilos. There was more than one lift per minute, and there were lifts at more than half arms length from the body, lifts in a stooping posture, and lifts with arms above shoulder height. After well over 15 years work she developed 82 daily low-back pain, and a medical specialists examination as well as x-rays showed considerable degenerative arthritis of the low back. The injured person had been doing heavy lifting work for 20 years, with a daily lifting load of 13-15 tonnes. Each object weighed 15-20 kilos on average, and she made more than one lift per minute, lifted at more than half arms length from the body and lifted in a stooping posture or with her arms lifted above shoulder height in connection with lifts to and from a pallet. Therefore there are grounds for reducing the 35-kilo weight requirement for each lift for women to a 15-20-kilo requirement. In addition, the total daily lifting load and the exposure period were substantial and significantly higher than the 8-10-year requirement set out in the list of occupational diseases. Furthermore there is good time correlation between the load and the onset of the disease. Example 4: Recognition of back pain after lifting of objects (postal worker for 18 years) The injured person worked as a postal worker for 15 years. The first 5 years the work included reloading of railway wagons with frequent lifts of parcels and sacks weighing 1-100 kilos (average weight 30-35 kilos). The following years he worked in the central sorting at the post office, emptying postbags, sorting mail for shelving units and packing mail in bags for distribution. This work involved lifts of 100-200 heavy mail bags weighing 30-60 kilos on average; sorting of letters (approximately 2,000 letters per hour), and packing of mail in bags weighing 30-60 kilos on average. The daily lifting load from objects weighing between 30 and 60 kilos was 6- 8 tonnes. The work was furthermore characterised by frequent lifts in unfavourable working postures at a low or high working height, i. A medical specialist and examinations in a hospital established a prolapsed disc as well as low-back degeneration. The postal worker for more than 15 years had heavy lifting work with a daily load between 6 and 8 tonnes. The lifted objects typically weighed between 30 and 60 kilos, and the lifting conditions were very awkward and stressful. The nature and scope of the lifting work, measured in tonnes and years, give grounds for reducing the requirements to the weight of each lift and to the daily load respectively. The postal worker has developed a chronic low-back disease with pain, and there is relevant and good correlation between the course of the disease and the lifting work. Example 5: Recognition of back pain after lifting of objects (airport porter for 10 years) The injured person worked for well over 10 years as a porter in Copenhagen Airport. The work consisted in loading and unloading about 10 planes per day in a four-man team. The weight of the baggage per plane varied from a few hundred kilos to 4 tonnes per plane, an average of 1. The total daily lifting load was equivalent to 4-5 tonnes per person, and the individual lifts typically weighed 15-25 kilos. A great deal of the lifting work occurred in unfavourable working postures, characterised i. After 8 years work he had increasing low-back trouble with daily pain, which was aggravated under stress. The injured person developed a chronic low-back disease with pain after working for 10 years as an airport porter, loading and unloading airplanes. He had a daily lifting load of 4 to 5 tonnes with typical single lifts of 15-25 kilos. The work was characterised by very awkward and back-loading lifting conditions, i. Therefore there are grounds for reducing the requirement to the daily lifting load to 4-5 tonnes and the requirements to the weight of the units to 15-25 kilos. Furthermore there is good correlation between the work and the onset of the disease. Example 6: Claim turned down lifting of objects (warehouse assistant for 17 years) The injured person worked for 17 years as a warehouse assistant in a large green-grocery production plant. The work included different types of warehouse work and daily lifts of pallets, fruit boxes etc. Each lift typically weighed between 3 and 25 kilos, and the total daily lifting load was between 0. In addition, he did a great deal of horizontal pulling of heavy pallet trolleys etc. After more than 30 years work he developed daily low-back pain with restricted motion of the low back. The injured person had a chronic low-back disease after working for many years as a warehouse assistant. The daily lifting load was less than 1 tonne, however, and thus substantially less than 8-10 tonnes per day. Horizontal pulling of trolleys cannot be included under back-loading work as it was not back-loading upward pulling. Example 7: Claim turned down upper thoracic back pain after work as a cleaner (for 10 years) The injured person worked with cleaning of a companys premises and bathrooms, 5 hours a day for 5 years and then full time for 5 years. The work consisted in wiping of surfaces, emptying wastepaper baskets, vacuuming and washing of floors. She had a cleaning trolley in some of the places with a hand-operated wringing machine and a dry/wet mop. There were three vacuum cleaners at her disposal, which she carried around with her through the production premises to the various rooms. In the last couple of years she had increasing problems in the form of thoracic back pain and was diagnosed by a medical specialist with thoracic facet syndrome (upper thoracic back pain). The reported disease, thoracic facet syndrome (upper thoracic back pain), is not on the list of occupational diseases as the medical docu- mentation in the field shows no correlation between exposures at work and this disease. Nor are there any grounds for submitting the claim to the Occupational Diseases Committee on the assumption that the claim may be recognised without application of the list, the disease being a consequence of the special nature of the work. This is because the exposure, in the form of cleaning work, cannot be deemed to be a special risk with regard to the development of thoracic back pain. For the greater part of the working day, the work mainly consisted in different types of paving. Furthermore, there were generally occurring lifts of heavy kerbstones and slabs that weighed 75 to 150 kilos and were lifted by 1-2 persons. After 8 84 years work he had severe and acute low-back pain without any external cause, and an examination at the hospital diagnosed a prolapsed disc of the low back. After conservative treatment he still suffered from daily back pain and restricted motion of the low back. The injured person had a chronic low-back disease with pain after 8 years of heavy lifting work as a bricklayer. His daily lifting load was 3 to 5 tonnes, and the work was characterised by frequent, extremely heavy single lifts of 75 to 150 kilos under very awkward and back-loading lifting conditions. As a consequence of the awkward lifting conditions, there are grounds for reducing the requirement to the weight of each, extremely heavy, lift. Example 9: Recognition of back pain after extremely heavy lifts (machine fitter for 8. Each motor typically required several handlings, and the daily lifting load was 3 to 4 tonnes. After about 7 years work he developed a low-lying back pain that gradually became chronic with daily pain and restricted motion of the low back. A medical specialist made the diagnosis of low-back disc degeneration, and this diagnosis was confirmed by an x-ray examination. Therefore there are grounds for reducing the requirement to the weight of each single lift to between 50 and 95 kilos. As there was a daily lifting load of at least 3 tonnes and the injured person had a chronic low-back disease in good time correlation with the heavy lifting work, the claim meets the requirement for recognition on the basis of the item of the list of occupational diseases pertaining to lifting of extremely heavy objects. Example 10: Claim turned down back pain after extremely heavy lifts (slaughterer for 15 years) The injured person worked for well over 15 years as a livestock slaughterer in a large provincial slaughterhouse.
This occurs if the cross-reactive memory eectors have sucient anity for the variant antigen (Kaverin et al order indinavir 400 mg with mastercard. This occurs when cross-reactive memory eectors do a poor job of clear- ing secondary challenge but respond suciently to repress a new buy indinavir 400mg online, pri- mary response against the variant antigen (Good et al buy 400mg indinavir amex. Third, the host may fail to develop an increasingly broad memory prole over the course of repeated exposures to dierent variants. Ihavealready mentioned the immunodominance of individual immune proles and the tendency for the pattern of immunodominance to vary among individuals. I also discussed how cross-reactivity can aect clear- ance of secondary challenge and the development of memory over a hosts lifetime. In this section, I add a few more factors that aect the distribution of immune proles. Thus, older individuals typically have a broader memory prole than do younger individuals. Age-related pat- terns have been measured by serological surveys, which describe the presence or absence of circulating antibodies to a particular strain of parasite or to a particular antigen. Many surveys have been published forawide variety of parasites and hosts (Anderson and May 1991, pp. Here are just a few example pathogens for which broader immunolog- ical proles have been reported in older hosts compared with younger hosts: inuenza (Dowdle 1999), Plasmodium (Gupta and Day 1994; Bar- ragan et al. Most neutralizing antibodies against inuenza bind to hemag- glutinin, the viruss dominant surface molecule (Wilson and Cox 1990). Three major subtypes of hemagglutinin have circulated in human pop- ulations since about 1890, labeled H1, H2, and H3. Although antibodies to a partic- ular variant do not always protect against infection by other variants of the same subtype, the antibodies to variants of a subtype do often cross-react to some extent. The strains labeled A/strain des- ignation (subtype) were used to test for antibodies to a particular subtype by measuring the degree to which blood samples carried antibodies that reacted signicantly against the test strain. These patterns of cross-reaction allow one to measure immunological proles of individuals with regard to previous exposure to each of the three subtypes. By measuring individuals of dierent ages, a picture emerges of the past history of exposure and immunity to the dierent subtypes. The 1957 pandemic was caused by an H2 subtype and the 196869 pandemic was caused by an H3 subtype. Original data from Housworth and Spoon (1971), with permission from Oxford University Press. Note that antibodies against H1 occur in 8090% of individuals who were less than twenty years old during the pandemic years, suggesting widespread dis- tribution of the disease. The drop in the seropositive level for individu- als born before 1900 may be explained by the typically lower percentage of adults than children infected by inuenza epidemics (Nguyen-Van- Tam 1998). The largedropinseroprevalence after 1922 suggests that H1 declined in frequency after the pandemic. Perhaps because of widespread immunity to H1, variants of this subtype had diculty spreading between hosts. Cohorts born in the years before the pandemic had very high seroprevalence, suggesting widespread infection. Seropreva- lence declined sharply in those born just after the pandemic, implying that H3 had nearly disappeared from circulation. Older people often suer higher mor- tality from inuenza than do younger people (Nguyen-Van-Tam 1998), so the pattern in 1957 appears to be typical. The contained mortality among older individuals in 196869 may have been caused partly by immunological memory to the H3 pandemic of 1890 and consequent protection against this subtype. The age structure of immunity proles has probably inuenced the waxing and waning of the various inuenza A subtypes over the past 110 years. Inuenza causes uniquely widespread and rapid epidemics; thus the details of age-related immune proles and antigenic variation likely dier in other pathogens. Malaria is perhaps the only other disease for which existing data suggest interesting hypotheses. In areas withendemicPlasmodium falciparum infection, hosts often pass through three stages of immunity (Gupta and Day 1994; Barra- gan et al. Maternal antibodies pro- vide signicant protection for newborns up to six months of age. After maternal antibodies fade, high infection rates with severe disease fre- quently occur until the age of two to three years. Acquired immunity develops gradually over the following years, with signicant reduction in the severity of symptoms. Individuals who depart and live in malaria-free areas for many months become signicantly more susceptible upon return (Neva 1977; Cohenand Lambert 1982). The slow buildup of immunity partly depends on the high antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum (Marsh and Howard 1986; Forsyth et al. An individual appar- ently requires exposure to several of the locally common variants before acquiring a suciently broad immunological prole to protect against disease (Barragan et al. Newborns, memory decay, and migration provide the main sources of new susceptible hosts. Ospring of mice and hu- mans obtain IgA antibodies in milk andIgGantibodies through the pla- centa(Janeway et al. The newborn inherits circulating IgG titers in the blood that match the mothers antibody levels. The infant receives the particular antibody specicities generated by the mothers history of ex- posure to particular antigens. Infection of a baby early in life may be cleared by maternal antibody, thereby failing to stimulate an immune response and generate long-lasting memory (Albrecht et al. Other vertebrates also transmit maternal antibodies to newborns (Zin- kernagel et al. For example, bovines produce highly concentrated antibodies in the rst milk (colostrum), which must be absorbed via the calfs gut during the rst twenty-four hours after birth (Porter 1972). In this rst day, the calf does not digest the immunoglobulins and is able to take up most antibody classes by absorption through the gut epithe- lium. For example, IgA may prevent attachment of Vibrio cholerae to the intestinal epithelium, gonococcus to the urethral epithe- lium, or chlamydia to the conjunctiva. Thus, protection against infection by IgA typic- ally lasts for a few months or less. Most vaccines protect by elevating the level of circulating antibod- ies and perhaps also memory B cells. The need for occasional vaccine boosters to maintain protection against some pathogens suggests that antibody titers or the pool of memory B cells decline in those cases. When long-term protection requires no boost, it may be that a lower threshold of antibodies or memory B cells protects against infection or that some regulatory mechanism of immunity holds titers higher. Astudyof chickens also showed T cellmediated control of secondary infection(Seo and Webster 2001). In that case, the secondary infection happened within 70 days of the primary challenge. Measurements of memory decay have been dicult partly because laboratory mice provide a poor model for long-term processes of immu- nity (Stevenson and Doherty 1998). It is dicult to separate decay of immunity from aging when immune memory in a mouse declines over many months. To begin, consider the temporal pattern of measles epidemics prior to widespread vaccination (Anderson and May 1991, chapter 6). Data from England and Wales in 19481968 show a regular cycle of epidemic peaks every two years. The cycle may be explainedbythethresholdden- sity of susceptible individuals required for an infection to spread. Just after an epidemic, most individuals retain memory that protects them from reinfection. The parasite declines because each infected individual transmits the infection to an average of less than one new susceptible host. Thenextepidemic must wait until the population recruits enough newborns who are too young to have been infected in the last epidemic. An epidemic then follows, leaving most of the population protected until the next cycle of recruitment and spread of infection. Probably all par- asite populations wax and wane to some extent as protective memory spreads with infection and the pool of susceptibles rebuilds by recruit- ment or by decay of immune memory.
Th17 cells are acknowledged to be instrumental in the response against microbial infection generic 400mg indinavir with amex, but are also associated with autoimmune inammatory processes particularly with type 1 diabetes development buy discount indinavir 400 mg, and now also with type 2 diabetes [282e287] purchase 400 mg indinavir with visa. Evidence is emerging indicating that histone deacetylases may be an important consideration in the development of this technology. Two recent articles have utilized the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate to (a) stimulate early pancreatic development in embryonic stem cells , and (b) generate islet- like clusters from human embryonic stem cells grown under feeder-free conditions . The authors concluded from these results that phenylbutyrate did not just solely mediate this response by its ability to induce gene expression of proteins involved in intracellular transport, but could also mediate this effect via a direct chemical chaperone activity . However, the use of leptin as a therapy for the treatment of obesity has been hampered by the fact that the majority of obese patients demonstrate leptin resistance, leading to the notion that leptin resistance may be one of the main causes of obesity . Increased glycemia and reduced melatonin (Mel) levels have been recently shown to coexist in diabetic patients at the end of the night period. In a rat model mimicking this situation, the absence of melatonin induced night-time hepatic insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis due to stimulation of Epigenetics in Human Disease nocturnal unfolded protein response, which could be alleviated using phenylbutyrate . Finally treatment of experimentally induced diabetic mice that had undergone islet transplants with phenylbutyrate postoperatively was found to enhance islet engraftment with a higher cumulative cure rate of diabetes (p<0. One orally available form of this compound (triButyrate) has been used since the 1980s for the treatment of children with inborn errors of urea synthesis/urea cycle disorders, with a recommended dosage of 450e500 mg/kg bodyweight per day. Some individuals caution against the use of such dietary compounds as these may not be specic enough and may tend to target proteins more essential to an organism than specic disease genes . Nevertheless a nutrition-based approach for delivery of specic targeting therapies may have potential benet in patients suffering from diabetes. Indeed a recent study found that sulforaphane when used at nutri- tional levels protected mesenchymal stem cells from apoptosis and senescence and promoted their proliferation . Derived from turmeric, this compound shows many pleiotropic effects, one of which is to inhibit histone deacetylases [341,342]. Indeed one of the rst case studies of the use of this compound in patients was in a diabetic patient almost four decades ago . In a more recent small patient study, ingestion of 6 g of a curcumin preparation increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but had no signicant effect on overall glucose response as measured by an oral glucose tolerance test . One of the ongoing issues with the use of curcumin in humans concerns its poor absorption and the large quantity needed to be effective. However, it has been shown that curcumin has increased bioavailability when combined with phospholipids. When complexed with soy lecitihin curcumin (Meriva) has 29-fold increased absorption in human patients . Other tech- nologies such as nanoparticles have also been shown to improve the delivery of curcumin . A phase I clinical trial involving nano-curcumin has been initiated in patients with advanced malignancies to identify the maximum dose limits (Clinicaltrial. Taken together further studies with curcumin are warranted to determine whether a nutritional-based compound such as curcumin may have either chemopreventative benet in patients at risk of developing diabetes, or may have a role in the management of patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. This compound is thought to be an activator of Sirt1 , but this has since been called into question . Recent studies have also evaluated safety and potential mechanisms of activity following multiple dosing, and have found resveratrol to be safe and reasonably well-tolerated at doses of up to 5 g/day, although it is anticipated that the doses used in future trials will be signi- cantly less than this amount. As such, care must be taken in evaluating the potential benets of resveratrol supplements in patients with diabetes, particularly given that resveratrol is also available as supplement pills and liquids, in which it is sometimes combined with vitamins and/or other ingredients. The supplements are generally labeled as containing from 20 to 500 mg per tablet or capsule. However, the purity of these products is unknown, and because dietary supple- ments are loosely regulated, it should not be assumed that the labeled dosage is accurate. Clearly, further work will be required to establish whether resveratrol may be an effective treatment for diabetes. Clearly, this is an exciting area of epigenetic regulation of gene expression which may have great utility in the treatment of diabetes, and will require further studies. From the signicant body of work presented in this review, it is clear that further studies will be required to examine the therapeutic potential of compounds which target the epigenetic machinery in the treatment/management of diabetes pathogenesis. However, as these inhibitors affect many genes it is hoped that the balance of genes altered by such treatments would be tipped from unfavorable to favorable diabetogenes. Indeed the next generation of these inhibitors may have better specicity and efcacy. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Is there a code embedded in proteins that is based on post-translational modi- cations? The redox basis of epigenetic modications: from mechanisms to functional conse- quences. Genome-wide analysis distinguishes hyperglycemia regulated epigenetic signatures of primary vascular cells. Seven regions of the genome show evidence of linkage to type 1 diabetes in a consensus analysis of 767 multiplex families. A genomewide scan for type 1-diabetes susceptibility in Scandinavian families: identication of new loci with evidence of interactions. Genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose homeostasis susceptibility genes in the Chinese: signicant linkage to chromosome 6q21-q23 and chromo- some 1q21-q24. Type 1 diabetes: evidence for susceptibility loci from four genome-wide linkage scans in 1,435 multiplex families. Histone deacetylase-2 is a key regulator of diabetes- and transforming growth factor-beta1-induced renal injury. Hyperglycemia induces a dynamic cooperativity of histone methylase and demethylase enzymes associated with gene-activating epigenetic marks that coexist on the lysine tail. Role of the lysine-specic demethylase 1 in the proinammatory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells of diabetic mice. Methyltransferase Set7/9 maintains transcription and euchromatin structure at islet-enriched genes. Genome-Wide Proling of H3K56 Acetylation and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Human Adipocytes. Glucose regulation of insulin gene expression requires the recruitment of p300 by the beta-cell-specic transcription factor Pdx-1. The pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein (Pdx-1) interacts with histone deacetylases Hdac-1 and Hdac-2 on low levels of glucose. The cytokine interleukin-1beta reduces the docking and fusion of insulin granules in pancreatic beta-cells, preferentially decreasing the rst phase of exocytosis. Multiple chromatin-bound protein kinases assemble factors that regulate insulin gene transcription. The antitumor histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid exhibits antiinammatory properties via suppression of cytokines. Histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation signals the transcriptional competence of the adiponectin promoter in preadipocytes. Modications of histone H3 at lysine 9 on the adiponectin gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Suppression of adiponectin gene expression by histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 coactivators, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma coactivator-1 expression is reduced in obesity: potential pathogenic role of saturated fatty acids and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Identication of a novel gene encoding an insulin-responsive glucose transporter protein. Histone code modications repress glucose transporter 4 expression in the intrauterine growth-restricted offspring. Stimulation of glucose uptake in muscle cells by prolonged treatment with scriptide, a histone deacetylase inhibitor.
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