Such practices are not acceptable generic emsam 5 mg fast delivery, particularly for molecules 60 which are used as last resort medicine for humans buy discount emsam 5mg line. If clinical freedom of veterinarians must be stressed order emsam 5 mg amex, as they are the best placed to determine the right option treatment, we believe such practices should be better controlled as it represents a risk of increasing selection pressure. Defining a reduction percentage is the only way to achieve a significant reduction in antibiotic use as experience in several countries proved. In 2011 the Dutch government set a clear proven quantitative policy objective to achieve a 20% reduction in reduction targets antibiotic use compared with 2009. In the end the slashed antibiotics total sales of antibiotics dropped by nearly 32% in use. In addition the 2013 policy objective to achieve a 50% reduction in antibiotic use compared with 2009 has already been exceeded as the total sales of antibiotics dropped by 62 51% during the period 2009-2012. It shows that quantitative objectives help to efficiently reduce the need to recourse to antibiotics. In addition if controls of drug residues at farm level are important the European Commission should also consider testing the final product for the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The priority is now to refine the data collection at species level and have consumption data, preferably at farm level. Today, sales data While such information is of great value it still lacks some do not detail specificity. Sales data do not provide information on the which antibiotic kind of species which received antibiotics while most was given to veterinary medicines are administered to several animal which species, species. As such it is impossible to know which species specific species have been treated. It will also provide information as to the classes of antibiotics used per species and help determine whether some antibiotics should not be allowed for certain species anymore. To have reliable sales data which allows comparison by species and helps policy makers to develop new strategies it is important to have data by weight groups or production type. Indeed larger animals may require larger doses, as this is the case in human medicine, so sales data per species alone might not always reflect reality. If sales data indicate how many tons of antibiotics were sold, it does not provide any information on the real consumption of antibiotics by farm animals. In addition, overall sales data might show a steady decline only because more powerful antibiotics are used at lower doses, which inaccurately reflect the risk posed to both animal and human health. Consequently harmonised methodology to collect and compare consumption data should be developed urgently. Collecting antibiotics consumption volumes in livestock farming is critical as it allows us to determine whether differences in antibiotic resistance amongst animal species can be related to differences in consumption patterns of antibiotics. It will help describe and quantify the consumption of antibiotics in full detail at animal species level to eventually determine which changes to make. The data will create transparency and help define benchmark indicators for veterinary consumption of antibiotics. It enables an estimation of the amounts of antimicrobial agents sold per species (limitations: weight group and production type information lacking). This allows comparison between farms with similar activities to help identify persistently high consumers. This is the reason invoked by the Danish government who implemented the yellow- card system in 2010. In this system pig farms are given a yellow card when they consume more than twice the average consumption. This highlights that greater 67 efforts are still needed to limit the use of antibiotics at farm level. It allows government officials to review the antibiotic use of individual farmers and to consequently issue warnings and require farm inspections as needed. At the same time farms who achieve good results could be used as a model for farms which rely too much on antibiotics. For instance the Consumption data German government recently set up a new central reflects the databank that will record antibiotic use on situation on the individual farms. Refining identify where antibiotics are used in excess and data at farm or vet enable farmers to compare their level of antibiotic level helps identify use with the national average. Indeed it is urgent inadequate that farmers report every single treatment behaviours. Under the banner of One Health, whereby animal and human health are closely interconnected, immediate action should be undertaken as the threat is growing and it might take several years to reverse the trend. Indeed positive effects could only be seen many years after antibiotic use has diminished while antibiotic resistance is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in 68 any country. In view of the upcoming review of both Veterinary Medicines and Medicated Feed legislations it is critical to implement rules which will help to curb the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and to effectively fight antibiotic resistance. We also call on the Commission to publish a progress report on the implementation of the 5 year action plan on antimicrobial resistance indicating areas where legislative changes are required. Those antibiotics should be restricted for species where a high risk of resistance transmission has been identified, as well as for therapeutic group treatment and eventually for metaphylaxis. Piddock Abstract | Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are difficult or impossible to treat are becoming increasingly common and are causing a global health crisis. Antibiotic resistance is encoded by several genes, many of which can transfer between bacteria. New resistance mechanisms are constantly being described, and new genes and vectors of transmission are identified on a regular basis. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria are either intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to antibiotics, including the prevention of access to drug targets, changes in the structure and protection of antibiotic targets and the direct modification or inactivation of antibiotics. Antibiotics underpin modern medicine; their use has the Gram-negative genus Pseudomonas. A second example relates fatty acid-linked peptide chain infections is becoming a reality. The most recent World to the lipopeptide daptomycin (first approved for clinical that targets the cell membrane Economic Forum Global Risks reports have listed anti- use in 2003), which is active against Gram-positive bac- (for example, daptomycin). It is estimated that in Europe 25,000 people This is due to an intrinsic difference in the composition Glycopeptide A natural or semi-synthetic die each year as a result of multidrug-resistant bacte- of the cytoplasmic membrane; Gram-negative bacteria amino sugar-linked peptide rial infections and that this costs the European Union have a lower proportion of anionic phospholipids in the chain that targets terminal economy 1. In the United States cytoplasmic membrane than do Gram-positive bacte- d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptides (for more than 2 million people are infected with antibiotic- ria, which reduces the efficiency of the Ca2+-mediated example, vancomycin). In addition to increased resistance to existing brane that is required for its antibacterial activity8. The intrinsic resistance of a bacterial species to membrane and access these peptides in the periplasm9. The simplest example of to antibiotics of different classes, including -lactams, Correspondence to L. This was achieved e-mail: the absence of a susceptible target of a specific antibi- using high-throughput screens of high-density genome l. Therefore, this Review provides an update of the latest research for each type of antibiotic resist- ance mechanism and puts it into global context in terms of prevalence, the biological impact on the bacterium and the potential impact on clinical treatment. Hydrophilic antibiotics cross the outer membrane by diffusing through outer- membrane porin proteins. In most Enterobacteriaceae, Inner membrane Eux pump the major porins, such as the outer-membrane proteins OmpF and OmpC of E. The figure shows an overview ofNature Reviews | Microbiology non-specific channels; previous evidence that suggested intrinsic resistance mechanisms. Antibiotic A can enter the cell via a membrane-spanning now seems to be incorrect1820,. Therefore, reducing the porin protein, reach its target and inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis. Antibiotic B can also permeability of the outer membrane and limiting antibi- enter the cell via a porin, but unlike Antibiotic A, it is efficiently removed by efflux. This well-established mecha- nism of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative aeruginosa1011,. However, recent data have shown that in Entero- nations in which one agent can inhibit an intrinsic resist- bacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. For to resistance to newer drugs such as carbapenems and example, analysis of the susceptibility phenotypes result- cephalosporins, to which resistance is usually mediated ing from inactivation of all non-essential E.
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An therapy with intracavernousal injections and penile venous outbreak of Phialemonium infective endocarditis surgery in chronic erectile dysfunction. Scand J Urol Nephrol linked to intracavernous penile injections for the Suppl 1994;157(Suppl):107-112. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology & Therapeutics Stroberg P, Murphy A, Costigan T. Evaluation of the effectiveness of sildenafil using questionnaire Steidle C, Witt M A, Matrisciano J et al. Int J satisfaction in nonresponders to testosterone gel: Potential Urol 2005;12(4):369-373. Adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to Steiger A, Holsboer F, Benkert O. Adv Intern tumescence and sleep electroencephalogram in patients with Med 2004;43(7):571-574. Testosterone treatment improves body composition Steiger Axel, Benkert O, Holsboer F. Br J Sex Med 2006;3(2):377 erectile function: from basic research to a new clinical paradigm for managing men with androgen Tarhan F, Kuyumcuoglu U, Kolsuz A et al. Treatment of erectile comprehensive assessment of sexual function after dysfunction in hemodialysis patients and effects of sildenafil retropubic non nerve sparing radical prostatectomy for [abstract]. Arch Ital Urol Androl Association European Dialysis & Transplant Association June 2005;77(4):219-223. Postgrad hormone-releasing hormone therapy in locally advanced prostate Med J 1990;66(780):831-833. Bioavailable testosterone with age and erectile Teloken P E, Smith E B, Lodowsky C et al. Use of sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in Thadani U, Smith W, Nash S et al. Neurosurgery potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor for the Quarterly 2006;16(1):40-43. Society expert consensus document: The cardiac patient and sexual activity in the era of sildenafil Thaveundayil J X, Hambalek R, Ng Ying et al. Israel Medical Association Journal: Imaj erections induced by hydroxyzine: Possible mechanism of 2000;2(1):63-65. 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New oral therapies for the treatment of erectile Uropharmacology: Current and future strategies in the dysfunction purchase 5 mg emsam. Penile shaft hypopigmentation: Lichen sclerosus occurring after Earle C M buy emsam 5 mg free shipping, Stuckey B G discount emsam 5 mg without prescription, Ching H L et al. The incidence and the initiation of alprostadil intracavernous injections management of priapism in Western Australia: a 16 year audit. Br J period: placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover laboratory Urol 1999;162(1):147-153. Focus on Alternative & Complementary term treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in Therapies 2005;10(2):94-97. Yohimbine for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of El Malik E M A. High El-Rufaie Omer E F, Bener Abdulbari, Abuzeid Mohamed S O proportions of erectile dysfunction in men with the et al. Can Fam parameters in patients with erectile dysfunction: association with Physician 1998;442103-2105. 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Erectile Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Newly dysfunction and coronary risk factors: prospective results from Diagnosed, Intermediate- to High-Risk Prostate the Massachusetts male aging study. Sildenafil for male nitroprusside on hemodynamics of corpus cavernosum erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ark Med Disappointing initial results with transurethral Soc 1998;95(3):100-101. The effect of doxazosin on sexual function in patients Ghezzi A, Malvestiti G M, Baldini S et al. Cardiology Review secondary to cavernous adrenergic hypertone: initial results of 2002;19(11):32-33. Evaluation of the impact of diabetes on male sexual dysfunction and hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular interaction in diabetic males. Oral phentolamine: an alpha-1, alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist for the treatment of erectile Ginsberg D L. Vardenafil treatment of sertraline-induced sexual Gontero P, Fontana F, Zitella A et al. 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Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of and health-related quality of life in men with prostate Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation cancer randomly assigned to hormonal medication or 2002;11(6):613-670. Penile Prostate Cancer & Prostatic Diseases 2003;6(2):121 prostheses in paraplegic men. Combination of psychological erectile dysfunction because of the presence of psychosexual therapy and intrapenile injections in the macroprolactinemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & treatment of erectile dysfunctions: Rationale and Metabolism 1996;81(7):2512-2514. Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association 1998;Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A possible mechanism for alteration of human erectile function by digoxin: inhibition of Hatzimouratidis K, Hatzichristou D. Testosterone and corpus cavernosum sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase erectile function: an unresolved enigma. Fluoxetine and premature ejaculation: a double-blind, crossover, placebo- Hatzimouratidis K, Hatzichristou D G. Natural approaches to promote sexual dysfunction: Characteristics of couples, treatment outcome, and function: Part 1: Viagra versus a natural approach. Review of new compounds available in Australia for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil citrate therapy for men with erectile Hong B, Ji Y H, Hong J H et al. Pharmaceutical Journal of Chinese Peoples crossover study evaluating the efficacy of korean red Liberation Army 2002;18(4):205-208. Apomorphine: An function and gonadal hormones in patients taking update of clinical trial results. Comments on "Prolactin Levels and Erectile Function in Patients Treated With Risperidone. Tadalafil has no responses by color Doppler ultrasonography studies detrimental effect on human spermatogenesis or reproductive between sildenafil non-responders and responders. Correlation "Visual field defect and intracerebral hemorrhage associated between voiding and erectile function in patients with with use of vardenafil (Levitra)": Comment and Reply. Hemodynamic effects of sildenafil in men with severe coronary artery Hubler J, Szanto A, Konyves K. Clinical and urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic cost-effectiveness of new and emerging technologies obstruction. Int J Impot Res testosterone on sexual function in men: results of a meta 2002;14(6):513-517. Treatment program for sildenafil on other treatment modalities for erectile erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Am dysfunction: A study of nationwide and local hospital J Cardiol 2004;93(6):689-693. Treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with penile arteries in papaverine-induced erection with cardiovascular disease: Guide to drug selection. Sildenafil (Viagra): New data, new confidence in antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition: Effects on the decrease in testosterone is significantly exacerbated in coronary vasculature. The metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction: erectile dysfunction observed in these men?. Testosterone Impotence and chronic renal failure: a study of the supplementation for erectile dysfunction: results of a meta hemodynamic pathophysiology. The effectiveness of combining hormone therapy and problems in elderly men: osteoporosis and erectile radiotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Characterization of analysis of double-blind trials of the efficacy and calcium channel blocker induced smooth muscle relaxation tolerability of doxazosin-gastrointestinal therapeutic using a model of isolated corpus cavernosum.
Moreover emsam 5mg low cost, if one wanted to conrm the value of the principle of multiple causation in psychiatric disturb- ance buy 5mg emsam overnight delivery, one could do no better than to start with sexual disorders as the prime exem- plar of this principle buy emsam 5mg on line. As several of the authors in this collection of outstanding contributions point out, approaching the complexities of sexual desire by study- ing problems with genital congestion are likely to produce a limited yield. Balon and Segraves have assembled an international group of experts who share a broad biopsychosocial perspective in their understanding of human sexual dysfunction. To their credit, they in no way give short shrift to biological causes and pharmacologic treatments. Indeed, readers of this book will gain a sophisti- cated understanding of how physiological factors contribute to sexual problems and how to integrate sound medication strategies in their treatments. Going against the grain, it restores a biopsychosocial perspective to the understanding and treatment of sexual dysfunction. It also provides the clinician reader with a practical, commonsense guide to treatment planning that treats the patient as an individual rather than a disease entity. I know of no other text in the eld that can match this state-of-the-art treatment of the subject. Preface The area of treatment of sexual disorders has undergone an enormous expansion during the last few decades. However, the new develop- ments in the area of sexual pharmacology have unfortunately also led to a biological reductionism in the eld. In the present time, physicians in many disciplines view sexual dysfunctions as mostly, if not purely, of biological origin and discard any notion of psychological factors in the etiology of sexual problems. The initial hype about the success rates of sildenal certainly contributed to this notion. However, clinicians who treat sexual dysfunctions/disorders on a daily basis know that in sexual functioning, psychology and biology are intertwined in a very complicated way. In light of that, we feel a text that balances these two not contradictory but complementary etiological views would be highly desirable. A synthesis of biology and psychology in the area of etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of sexual dysfunction is sorely needed in the eld. We also hope that this text will spark greater interest in the often necess- ary dual approach to treatment of these disorders/dysfunctions among psychia- trists and other specialists. Finally, as psychiatrists who are interested in all aspects of well being of our patients, we hope that this book will help to improve the quality of life and sexual functioning of our patients. Combination Therapy for Sexual Dysfunction: Integrating Sex Therapy and Pharmacotherapy. Faculty of Medicine, McGill University and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Mortimer B. The wide spread usage of effective biological therapies for sexual disorders has contributed to the increasing emphasis on biological models concerning etiology, often to the neglect of psychological factors. In the 1960s, it was commonly assumed that most sexual problems were psychogenic in etiology (1). However, the advent of effective biological therapies has shifted the focus to organic causes of erectile dysfunction (2). These changes in assumed etiology have had profound effects on treatment and conceptualization of the origins of sexual disorders. Many patients who used to be treated by behavioral therapy are now being treated pharmacologically. The rapid development of biological models of therapy has brought valuable help to many individuals who previously had minimal treatment choices. However, a number of factors including the large number of men who dont rell sildenal prescriptions indicate that pharma- cotherapy alone may not always be sufcient (3). To date, there is insufcient data to indicate when pharmacotherapy alone, psychotherapy alone, or combined therapy is indicated for most of the sexual disorders. A comparable situation in general psychiatry exists in the treatment of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders. In each of these conditions, both pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches have been shown to be effective, and the most efficient clinicians select and combine thera- pies for the individual patient (47). Our experience in treating depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders may provide useful models for the treatment of sexual disorders. An example of an useful model is the study comparing nefazodone to cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy to the com- bination of these two modalities (8). Although the monotherapies were efca- cious, they were not signicantly different from each other. However, the combination of the two modalities was signicantly better than either monother- apy. Actually, the combination resulted in a highest ever treatment response rate in clinical trials of chronic major depression. As Heiman (9) pointed out, the implications for treatment of sexual dysfunction are compelling, though we need to clarify which medications and psychological therapies might be com- pared and combined. The rest of this chapter will briey summarize the history of the develop- ment of treatment for sexual problems and the recent knowledge about the epidemiology of sexual dysfunction, and discuss problems with current nomenclature. In the mid- to late-1960s, behavioral therapists began publishing clinical series documenting the successful treatment of sexual problems by the use of classical conditioning techniques. Treatment of Sexual Disorders 3 startstop technique for the treatment of rapid ejaculation was rst described by Semans in 1956 (10). However, the major use of behavioral techniques to treat sexual problems began after the publication of Human Sexual Inadequacy by Masters and Johnson in 1970 (11). In the 1980s, case reports began appearing in the psychiatric literature about using monoamine oxidase inhibitors and low dose antipsychotic drugs to treat rapid ejaculation (12). However, the use of psychiatric drugs to treat rapid ejaculation became much more common after the introduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Urologists have made important contributions to the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Both the Small-Carrion and inatable penile prostheses were intro- duced in the 1970s. Although patents for vacuum erection devices were obtained as early as 1917, the introduction of the vacuum erection pump by Osborn in 1974 resulted in this being a common solution for many men before the introduction of other treatment options. However, the popularity of treatment approaches decreased dramati- cally with the introduction of sildenal in 1998 and the subsequent introduction of tadalal and vardenal. Now a man could take an effective oral agent that allowed sexual behavior to occur in a more natural way. Understandably, as the primary etiology of erectile dysfunction for majority of aging men is vascular (13,14), the main focus of therapeutic oriented research of erectile dysfunction has been the vascular dysfunction/insufciency area. The previously touted use of androgens in erectile dysfunction has been abandoned as it became clear that androgen administration does not improve erectile dysfunction in eugo- nadal men (15). Interestingly, testosterone replacement in men with age-related mild hypogonadism is not effective in reversing symptoms of hypogonadism (in contrast to the same situation in older men) (15). The successful introduction of sildenal contributed to the search for pharmacological treatments for female sexual disorders. Initially, many companies did clinical trials in women with substances that had proven successful in treating erection problems. Off-label use of androgen preparations increased signicantly after the work by Gelfand and Sherwin (18,19) demonstrated that supraphysiological levels of testosterone increased libido in postmenopausal women (20). The use of androgen preparations to treat desire problems in women is currently undergoing clinical trials. As Rosen (21) pointed out, many large pharmaceutical trials of female sexual dysfunction are unfortunately hindered by various methodological problems, such as the lack of use of physiological outcome measures and the lack of consensus classication system for female sexual dysfunction in determining inclusion and exclusion criteria. The recent focus on pharmacological and other biological treatments of sexual dysfunction unfortunately takes away attention and emphasis from psychological treatments. Heiman (9) also cautions that the prescription of a physiologic treatment that ignores the fact that human sexuality is infused with individual meaning may invite further interference with sexual functioning. These surveys indicate that $40% of women have evidence of psychosexual dysfunction. We have more evidence concerning the preva- lence of sexual problems in men than women although the data base in both groups is rapidly growing. Correlates of erectile dysfunction in men include diabetes, vascular disease, age, and cigarette smoking. Serum dehydroepiandro- sterone and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found to be negatively correlated with erectile problems (26). Depression was correlated with erectile function in cross sectional studies, whereas passive personality traits tended to predict who would develop impotence in a prospective study (27). It is important to note that depression is not the only mental disorder associ- ated with sexual dysfunction(s).
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Prevalence of ciprofoxacin resistance among gram-negative bacilli in a tertiary care hospital. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal Escherichia coli among children in rural Vietnam. Predictors of surgical site infections among patients undergoing major surgery at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania. Risk factors for and mortality of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase- producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli nosocomial bloodstream infections. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria at a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Mexico: special focus on Acinetobacter baumannii. Neonatal septicemia in neonatal intensive care units: Epidemiological and microbiological analysis of causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility.
Very severe headache with altered consciousness without major neurologic deficit may suggest subarachnoid hemorrhage generic 5 mg emsam visa. Physical Examination Physical Findings may give clue to the type of stroke the patient is suffering from buy emsam 5 mg otc. Confirmation of Diagnosis: different investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis generic emsam 5 mg amex. Management of specific stroke Goal of Treatment Interruption of further brain damage Prevention and management of complication A. General Measures Admit the patients where close follow up can be given Continue follow up and maintenance of vital functions. Anticoagulation with heparin should be initiated when the acute phase of stroke is over. Rehabilitation: is a very important part of management, and it shall be started early and include:- Physiotherapy Occupational and speech therapy. Impairment of consciousness and Coma Learning objectives: at the end of this lesson the student will be able to: 1. Introduction Maintenance of conscious state requires proper functioning of the cerebral hemispheres, reticular activating system found in brain stem and corticothalmic connections. If there is structural, metabolic or toxic insult of diffuse nature to these structures results in alteration of conscious level of different degree. Autonomic functions are relatively well maintained, and a sleep-wake cycle exists. The loss of consciousness in such patients is diffuse bilateral hemispheric impairment, and such patients have normal brainstem function. Some of the causes include :- 515 Internal Medicine Metabolic disturbances such as : hepatic encephalopathy,uremic encephalopathy,hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis. Diseases that cause focal neurologic deficit: these disorders cause coma by affecting the reticular activating system. Establishment of cause of coma: is done by taking a careful history, doing rapid but through physical examination and investigations. Level of consciousness: can be assessed semi quantitatively using the Glasgow coma Scale. Brain stem reflexes Assessment of brainstem functions helps to localize the cause of coma. This can be done using brain stem reflexes including, pupillary light response, ocular movements, corneal reflex and the respiratory pattern. If the brainstem functions are normal, coma must be ascribed to bilateral hemispherical disease. During examination size, shape, symmetry and reaction to light should be noted on both eyes. Occulocephalic reflex Oculocephalic reflex is elicited by moving the head from side to side or vertically with eyes held open. In comatose patient with intact brainstem o If the eyeballs move to the opposite direction of the head movementintact brainstem function (dolls eyes movement is positive. Caloric (occulovestibular) reflex o This test is performed by irrigating the ear with ice (cold) to stimulate the vestibular apparatus. It is lost if the reflex connections between the fifth (afferent) and the seventh (efferent) cranial nerves within the pons are damaged. Motor function /response Posture of the patient: o Quadriparesis and flaccidity: suggest pontine or medullary damage o Decorticate posturing: flexion of the elbows and the wrists with supination of the arms, and extension of the legs, suggests severe bilateral or unilateral hemispheric or diencephalic lesion (damage above the midbrain. Differential Diagnosis: Psychogenic Coma (hysteric coma): patient often has history of psychiatric illness, and non physiologic response on physical examination. Management Ideally the, care of comatose patient is started together with the initial assessment to identify the etiology. This treatment is given if hypoglycemia is even remote possibility, and thiamine is given with glucose in order to avoid eliciting Wernicke disease in malnourished o Naloxone(0. Seizure and Epilepsy Learning objectives: at the end of this lesson the student will be able to: 1. Definition: Seizure is a paroxysmal event due to abnormal excessive discharge of cerebral neurons. Depending on the distribution of the discharge, the manifestations may be: Motor Sensory Autonomic or Psychiatric manifestation. Epilepsy is a syndrome characterized by recurrent (two or more) unprovoked seizure attacks, due to a chronic, underlying process in the brain. This definition implies that a person with a single seizure, or recurrent seizures due to correctable or avoidable circumstances, does not necessarily have epilepsy. International classification of seizures: Epileptic seizures can be classified in many different ways. Commonly used classification is the one developed by International League against Epilepsy. This classification is useful in understanding underlying etiology, selecting appropriate treatment and understanding the prognosis of seizure type. Analysis of 468 epileptics seen in neurology clinics of Addis Ababa showed highest incidence in males aged 11-20 years. The commonest type of seizure was found to be grand mal seizure accounting for 60% of all cases. Etiology of seizure or risk factors: The causes of epilepsy/seizure are vary greatly in different age groups and across different regions of the world Idiopathic or cryptogenic: in which the cause is unknown, accounts for the majority. Partial Seizures: these are seizures, which arise from localized region of the brain. This seizure activity may spread over one side of the body (Jacksonian march) to involve larger body part. The patient is unable to respond appropriately to visual or verbal commands during the seizure, and has impaired recollection or awareness of ictal phase. These are usually tonic-clonic type and difficult to differentiate from primary generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Generalized seizures There are seizure disorders which arise from both cerebral hemispheres simultaneously, with without any detectable focal onset. After 10 20 seconds the tonic phase evolves to clonic phase characterized by bilateral jerking clonic movement involving the whole body. Patients gradually regain consciousness over minutes to hours, and during this transition there is typically a period of postictal confusion, headache, muscle ache and fatigue that can last for many hours. Complications Status epilepticus Accidents Hypoxic brain damage Mental retardation and impairment of intellectual function Sudden death Psychosocial (Social stigma). Diagnostic approach/Evaluation Patients history and physical examination can aid in the determination of whether or not a seizure or some other transient event was responsible for the patients symptoms History should include: - History of the event Presence of any prodromal symptoms Description of seizure by reliable observer 527 Internal Medicine Post ictal symptoms Urinary incontinence, myalgia and tongue bite or oral lacerations are clues to the proper diagnosis. Differential Diagnosis for Seizure Syncope Psychogenic seizure (hysteric conversion) Transient Ischemic attack Migraine 528 Internal Medicine Management: Goal of therapy: Complete control of seizure Prevent development of complications and socioeconomic consequences. Avoidance of precipitating factor Maintain normal sleep schedule Avoid taking excess alcohol Reduce stresses using, physical Exercise, meditation or counseling 3. General principles: An attempt is usually made to prevent subsequent seizure using a single agent, in order to limit side effects. The addition of a second drug is associated with worsening of adverse effects; hence care should be taken, before one decides to add a second drug to the original regimen. Phenytoin: is the usual prescribed as a second line drug in resource limited settings like ours mainly because of its availability and cost. It is often given for the treatment of partial seizure Dosage: a low initial dosage with gradual increase is advised. Side effects Aplastic anemia Dizziness drowsiness 531 Internal Medicine Skin rash Transient diplopia When to stop antiepileptic drugs? The more severe and long lasting a patients active epilepsy before remission, the greater the risk of relapse. When to refer patients to a neurologist or tertiary level hospital Failure to respond to treatment Recurrence of previously controlled seizure Change in clinical pattern of seizure Appearance of previously absent symptoms/sign Development of side effects of a drug 4. Surgical interventions include Temporal lobe resection Corpus callosum sectioning Status epilepticus A condition characterized by continuous or repetitive discrete seizure with impairment of consciousness during interictal period, which lasts for more than 30 minutes.
Any degree of dysglycemia rological abnormalities at 18 months purchase emsam 5mg amex, especially if hypoglycemic sei- is associated with increased risk of postpartum diabetes (412) cheap 5 mg emsam with mastercard. These have been observational with no randomized However discount 5 mg emsam otc, many women do not receive adequate postpartum follow trials deliberately targeting different levels of maternal glycemia up, and many believe they are not at high risk for diabetes (417419). Despite this nding, often chosen 2 levels within the range and shown that there is more more work in this area is needed to improve uptake. One study hypoglycemia with the higher value, but the studies do not arrive revealed that, despite email reminders, absolute improvement was at a common value and vary from <4. Some recent trials have shown that early postpartum examine the best method of managing glycemia during labour testing (day 2 postpartum) may be as good at detecting diabetes (387,388). If this can be conrmed in more rigorous trials, it may be useful to do early postpartum testing in women at high risk for Breastfeeding. Risk and benets of each method risk of developing diabetes with both a lifestyle intervention or should be discussed with each patient and same contraindications metformin, these women were, on average, 12 years postpartum. In another randomized con- future pregnancies in consultation with their health-care provid- trolled trial, 260 women were randomized to receive the Mediter- ers (466,467). Screening for diabetes should be performed prior to ranean diet and physical activity sessions for 10 weeks between 3 conception to assure normoglycemia at the time of conception (see to 6 months postpartum, and then reinforcement sessions at 9 Screening for Diabetes in Adults chapter, p. In an effort to reduce the risk of con- developed glycemic disorders in the intervention group (42% vs. However, engaging women to adopt health behaviours may be challenging soon after delivery. More studies are needed to explore interven- tions that may help this population reduce their risk. Spontaneous abortion [Grade C, Level 3 (159)] be too short to draw conclusions about longer-term impact. Preeclampsia [Grade C, Level 3 (471,472)] women with diabetes in the observational work by Silverman iv. Progression of retinopathy in pregnancy [Grade A, Level 1 for type 1 diabetes (25); Grade D, Consensus for type 2 diabetes] et al (460) was evident by 5 years of age. Supplement their diet with multivitamins containing 1 mg of folic at follow up 5 to 6 vs. Discontinue medications that are potentially embryopathic, includ- and is associated with similar perinatal outcomes. Prior to conception in women with hypertension alone weeks gestation to reduce the risk of preeclampsia [Grade D, Level 4 (48)]. Recent evidence sug- Consensus] gests that higher dosage regimens might provide additional ecacy. Women on metformin and/or glyburide preconception may continue on natal corticosteroids to improve fetal lung maturation should follow a these agents if glycemic control is adequate until pregnancy is achieved protocol that increases insulin doses proactively to prevent hyperglyce- [Grade C, Level 3 (152,153)]. Assessment and management of complications Fetal surveillance and timing of delivery 5. Women should undergo an ophthalmological evaluation by a vision care specialist during pregnancy planning, the rst trimester, as needed during 16. Earlier onset and/or more frequent fetal health surveillance is surveillance during pregnancy as determined by the vision care special- recommended in those considered at highest risk [Grade D, Consensus]. Induction prior to 38 weeks of gestation should Grade D, Consensus for type 2 diabetes]. Womenshouldbecloselymonitoredduringlabouranddelivery,andmater- an interprofessional diabetes health-care team, including diabetes edu- nalbloodglucoselevelsshouldbekeptbetween4. Once pregnant, women with type 2 diabetes should be switched to insulin on the pump during labour and delivery [Grade C, Level 3 (172) for type 1 for glycemic control [Grade D, Consensus]. Receive an individualized insulin regimen and glycemic targets typi- prepregnant doses and titrated as needed to achieve good glycemic control cally using intensive insulin therapy by basal-bolus injection therapy [Grade D, Consensus]. Women with pre-existing diabetes should have frequent blood glucose for type 1 diabetes] monitoring in the rst days postpartum, as they have a high risk of hypo- b. Health-care providers should discuss appropriate weight gain at the initial visit and regularly throughout pregnancy [Grade D, Consensus]. Metforminand/orglyburidemaybeusedduringbreastfeeding[GradeC, mendations for weight gain during pregnancy should be individualized Level 3 (203) for metformin; Grade D, Level 4(204) for glyburide]. Metformin may be used as an alternative to insulin [Grade A, Level 1A (362) for metformin]; however, women should be informed 26. Women identied as being at high risk for type 2 diabetes should be that metformin crosses the placenta, longer-term studies are not yet offered earlier screening with an A1C test at the rst antenatal visit to available, and the addition of insulin is necessary in approximately identify diabetes which may be pre-existing [Grade D, Consensus]. If the initial screening is performed before 24 weeks of gestation and is negative, the woman should be rescreened as outlined in recom- 35. Preconception counseling in women with diabetes: A population-based study in the north of England. Rate of preconception care in women with type 2 diabetes still lags behind that of women with type 1 dia- betes. Effect of pregnancy on progression of diabetic reti- Organization of Diabetes Care, p. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, The Diabetes Control Type 2 Diabetes and Indigenous Peoples, p. Effect of pregnancy on microvascu- lar complications in the diabetes control and complications trial. Progression of diabetic reti- nopathy during pregnancy in women with type 2 diabetes. Pre-eclampsia is a potent risk References factor for deterioration of retinopathy during pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients. Trends in incidence of diabetes in pregnancy in pregnancy: Association with hypertension in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol and serious perinatal outcomes: A large, population-based study in Ontario, 1992;166:121418. Pregnancy in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in 2002-03, Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2015;28:6904. Progression of retinopathy during preg- obstetrical complications in women with pregestational diabetes: nancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2007;35:231 A population-based study in Ontario, Canada, 19962001. Risk of complications of pregnancy in women with retinal disease in women with type I diabetes. J Matern Fetal with type 1 diabetes: Nationwide prospective study in the Netherlands. Risk factor prole and preg- hypertension are associated with severe diabetic retinopathy in type 1 dia- nancy outcome in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Maternal overweight and obesity determined in early pregnancy: Systematic review and meta-analysis of large and risk of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Contemporary type 1 diabetes preg- the rst pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes parity and preeclamp- nancy outcomes: Impact of obesity and glycaemic control. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supple- outcomes among women with pregestational diabetes mellitus. National Insti- ments that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus-associated birth defects. Public Health Nutr microalbuminuria as a risk factor for pregnancy-induced hypertension in insulin- 2007;10:9206. Maternal obesity and risk for ated with an increased rate of preeclampsia in women with pregestational dia- birth defects. Less-tight versus tight control of hyper- with prepregnancy and gestational diabetes. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in type 1 prevention of morbidity and mortality from preeclampsia: U. London: Condential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health tion in preeclampsia prevention: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Risk of macrosomia remains glucose- thy associated with optimization of pregnancy outcomes.
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