Serial ra- Hepatic Lipidosis diographs can be used to evaluate the success of the In most cases buy generic lisinopril 17.5 mg on-line, hand-fed birds gain weight slower therapy generic lisinopril 17.5mg with mastercard. If this treatment fails cheap 17.5 mg lisinopril mastercard, proventriculotomy than parent-fed birds, and the hand-feeder should be (see Chapter 41) or gastric lavage (see Chapters instructed to maintain the maximum weight gain possible. This condition can be prevented others, it is possible to overfeed (especially in the by feeding a proven diet and comparing the bird’s later development stages) and cause massive weight weight gain to established growth charts. It has been suggested is normal in body size but substantially heavier than that multiple deficiencies of fiber, vitamins and min- the upper limit on the chart, the possibility of hepatic erals and nutritional excesses combine to cause this lipidosis should be considered. Affected birds are usually dyspneic, especially when food in the Hepatomas digestive tract places additional pressure on the res- Hepatic hepatoma has been described primarily in piratory system following feeding (Figure 30. The macaws, and may occur when blunt trauma ruptures abdomen is usually protuberant and the pale, en- the liver and causes hemorrhage. In these occur when the bird is lifted with pressure over the cases, the amount of food fed should be gradually liver or it may simply be idiopathic. Affected birds are reduced and small meals should be fed more often to pale with extremely low hematocrits and may be avoid respiratory distress. Hyperthermia will aggra- saved by repeated blood transfusions within the first vate the respiratory distress and should be avoided. If identified early, the birds may wean normally, but Gout Deposition of uric acid crystals in the tissues is called visceral gout and is usually due to end-stage renal disease. Excess vitamin D3 results in dystrophic calcification of numerous organs includ- ing the kidney, which then may result in gout (see Chapters 3, 21). Macaws seem to be particularly sensitive to excessive dietary consumption of vitamin D3 and calcium (see Color 21). It occurs sporadi- cally with several hand-feeding formulas, and the pigment may be more pronounced on some bedding materials, especially certain brands of paper towels. Musculoskeletal Disorders Leg Deformities Orthopedic problems in nestling birds are poorly un- derstood and the causes are believed to be multifac- torial. Nutritional deficiencies (especially of vitamin D3 and calcium), trauma and housing the birds on slippery surfaces are the most common causes. The bird was netic and incubation abnormalities probably also oc- 30% heavier than normal when compared to standard weight cur. In general, leg consisted of a peanut butter base supplemented with numerous herbs and vitamins. On post- deformities are challenging to repair and the earlier mortem the bird had large accumulations of fat throughout the the diagnosis and the younger the bird, the better the abdomen, and the liver was whitish-yellow with a roughened, 8,15 prognosis (see Chapter 42). Suggested etiologies include nutritional deficiencies, trauma, poor footing, improper incubation and genetic defects. Severe deformities, like the one in this cockatiel chick, are difficult to treat without surgery. Macaws and cockatoos should will have one or both legs splayed laterally from the be approximately 65-70 days old before attempting hip or stifle (Figure 30. More Toe Malposition severe deformities and those in older birds require a Malposition of digits in neonatal birds is believed to fixation device in addition to packing in a cup. Reducing the dietary chick can be taped over a foam rubber pad or sanitary protein content and slowing the growth of some napkin, or placed in a piece of foam with slits cut for chicks may aid in correcting the problem. As an alternative, the legs can be hobbled chicks should receive parenteral and dietary vita- together with elastic tape at the tarsometatarsus and mins and mineral supplements including vitamins A, if needed across the tibiotarsus. The hobble sites D3, E, B complex, C, K1, calcium, iodine, selenium, should be padded with cotton and care should be iron, copper and cobalt. The chick suspension method of treating this condition has should be placed in a smaller, padded environment been reported. This will help diminish the tendency for the legs to splay and the Valgus Deformity (Bowing of the tibiotarsus with toes to curl. In some patients, this alone may be lateral rotation of the femur or tibiotarsus): This is adequate to correct the condition without splinting. This condition develops quickly, This causes uneven bone growth and bowing and often in a matter of hours, and when the toes are twisting in the tibiotarsus (Color 30. It is a serious taped in a normal position, the condition is corrected condition that may not respond to conservative treat- quickly. Surgically closing the opposite side of the tained in the supported position for approximately as growth plate or periosteal stripping to even out the long as they were malpositioned (usually a maximum growth, followed by a dome osteotomy and realign- of several days). Any toe may be affected, but the distal pha- lanx of the outer digits (1 and 4) is most often reported. The lesion con- sists of an annular ring of constric- tion that eventually causes swelling and necrosis of the distal segment of the toe (Color 30. It appears simi- lar to the lesion induced by wrap- ping a thread around the toe, but this is seldom the cause. The etiol- ogy is unknown but may be related to low brooder humidity22 or fracture of the digits. Histology usually dem- onstrates edema and inflammation; microbial infections are rare except as secondary invaders. Radiographs indicated bowing of the tibiotarsus starting in the water soaks and frequent massage proximal third of the bone. This radiograph was taken four weeks post-sur- may restore circulation and correct gery. Note the stable bone union and minimal callus formation suggestive of primary bone the condition. The stabilizing pins used in this bird were positive-profile threaded pins that provide ring is present, it should be carefully maximum strength and tend to form a tight, long lasting pin/bone interface. All of the pins in this bird remained secure and had to be removed by “unscrewing” them from the bone. Additionally, the developing circulatory system soaked in warm, dilute, povidone-iodine solution and and muscle mass of neonates make them more sus- bandaged. Their skin tion and antibiotic ointments help soften and prevent is friable and sensitive, so all forms of external coap- 8 reformation of the annular ring. Toe constrictions can often be pre- The shoe should be made to properly fit the foot of the vented by keeping susceptible species on non-desic- affected individual with a notch in the shoe into cating surfaces and in brooders where the humidity which each toenail will be placed. Commercial forced air made, the foot is placed in the shoe and each digit is brooders with rapid air changes tend to desiccate the taped into a normal position using very thin strips of chicks and should be avoided. The plantar aspect of each Stifle luxation or subluxation in both juvenile and adult birds has been reported. A second piece of hy- occur when a bird gets a leg caught in the enclosure droactive dressing is applied dorsally to sandwich the and struggles to free itself. This mate- stifles may also occur and appear to be particularly rial is especially appropriate as it is soft, unlikely to common in cockatiels (Figure 30. The embryo internally pipped An eight-week-old Moluccan Cockatoo was presented for evaluation of a valgus de- three days earlier than anticipated and died the day after entering the air cell. The embryo weighed The defect was managed conservatively by placing the bird in a vertical container; 32 g (the average weight for chicks from this pair was 22 g) and was considered to be rolled towels positioned around the edges supported the bird in a continuous stand- large for the egg (fetal monster). Physical therapy was per- formed on the leg for ten minutes at each not indicate the presence of bacteria. The bird was presented at seven weeks of age for a corrective dome osteo- ties in any tissues. Development is rapid in large psit- tacine chicks, like this five-week-old Um- several digits. This neonate will grow from a hatching weight of 18 g to its adult Examination of the constrictions with a dissecting microscope failed to demon- size of 600 g in eight to ten weeks. In any nate has an over-zealous feeding response crop burn, the wounds should be treated or if the feeder has a rough, careless feeding conservatively, and surgical correction technique. Once the wall has been pene- should be delayed as long as possible for trated, food will be deposited in the subcu- differentiation to occur between damaged taneous tissues causing severe cellulitis. The bird was placed on ment, flushing of the involved tissues and smaller feedings provided more frequently systemic antimicrobial therapy. A large scab photograph, a feeding tube has been placed formed over the crop and caudal esophagus in the esophagus to demonstrate the loca- over a ten-day to two-week period. The parents had a granulation tissue was available to facili- broad assortment of soft foods available, tate repair. The wound was thoroughly including soaked monkey biscuit andmixed cleansed and the crop was bluntly sepa- vegetables. The crop and skin were geal and ingluvial impaction after being fed closed in separate layers as described in pieces of wood chips and dirt from the sub- Chapter 41. The yolk sac was the most affected of a group of 12 psit- had not started to absorb.

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Russell as I did generic 17.5mg lisinopril overnight delivery, both "be- fore" and "after order lisinopril 17.5mg free shipping," you would never again entertain any doubts about the power of belief buy lisinopril 17.5 mg otc, or that an idea accepted as true from any source, can be every bit as powerful as hypnosis. It is no exaggeration to say that every human being is hypnotized to some extent, either by ideas he has uncriti- cally accepted from others, or ideas he has repeated to himself or convinced himself are true. These negative ideas have exactly the same effect upon our behavior as the negative ideas implanted into the mind of a hypnotized subject by a professional hypnotist. He strains and struggles until the muscles of his arm and shoulder stand out like cords. And although normally he can hoist a 400 pound weight overhead, he now actually cannot lift the pencil. On the one hand they "try" to lift their hand, or the pencil, by voluntary effort, and actually con- tract the proper lifting muscles. But on the other hand, the idea "you cannot do it" causes contrary muscles to contract quite apart from their will. The negative idea causes them to defeat themselves—they cannot express, or bring into play their actual available strength. The gripping strength of a third athlete has been tested on a dynometer and has been found to be 100 pounds. Again, strangely enough, hypnosis has not added any- thing to his actual strength. What the hypnotic suggestion did do was to overcome a negative idea which had pre- viously prevented him from expressing his full strength. In other words, the athlete in his normal waking state had imposed a limitation upon his strength by the negative be- lief that he could only grip 100 pounds. The hypnotist merely removed this mental block, and allowed him to express his true strength. Barber has said, it is awfully easy to assume that the hypnotist himself must have some magical power when you see rather miraculous things happen during a hypnotic session. The timid, shy, retiring Caspar Milquetoast becomes outgoing, poised, and makes a stirring speech. Another individual who is not especially good in adding figures with a pencil and paper when awake, multiplies two three-digit figures in his head. All this happens apparently merely because the hypnotist tells them that they can and instructs them to go ahead and do it. The power, the basic ability, to do these things was inherent in the subjects all the time—even before they met the hypnotist. The subjects, however, were unable to use this power because they themselves did not know it was there. Without realizing it, they had hypnotized themselves into believing they could not do these things. And it would be truer to say that the hypnotist had "dehypnotized" them than to say he had hypnotized them. Within you, whoever you may be, regardless of how big a failure you may think yourself to be, is the ability and the power to do whatever you need to do to be happy and successful. This power becomes available to you just as soon as you can change your be- liefs. In one sense of the word every person on the face of the earth is inferior to some other person or persons. I know this, but it does not induce feelings of inferiority within me and blight my life —simply because I do not compare myself unfavorably with them, and feel that I am no good merely because I cannot do certain things as skillfully or as well as they. I also know that in certain areas, every person I meet, from the newsboy on the corner to the president of the bank, is superior to me in certain respects. But neither can any of these people repair a scarred face, or do any number of other things as well as I. Feelings of inferiority originate not so much from "facts" or experiences, but our conclusions regarding facts, and our evaluation of experiences. For example, the fact is that I am an inferior weight-lifter and an inferior dancer. It is not knowledge of actual inferiority in skill or knowledge which gives us an inferiority complex and in- terferes with our living. The next logical conclusion in this cockeyed reasoning process is to conclude that we are not "worthy"; that we do not deserve success and happiness, and that it would be out of place for us to fully express our own abilities and talents, whatever they might be, without apology, or without feeling guilty about it. All this comes about because we have allowed our- selves to be hypnotized by the entirely erroneous idea that "I should be like so-and-so" or "I should be like every- body else. The person with an inferiority complex invariably com- pounds the error by striving for superiority. From this false premise, a whole structure of "logical thought" and feeling is built. If he feels bad because he is inferior, the cure is to make himself as good as everybody else, and the way to feel really good is to make himself supe- rior. This striving for superiority gets him into more trouble, causes more frustration, and sometimes brings about a neurosis where none existed before. He becomes more miserable than ever, and "the harder he tries," the more miserable he becomes. God did not create a standard person and in some way label that person by saying "this is it. God created short people and tall people, large people and small people, skinny people and fat people, black, yellow, red and white people. Abraham Lincoln once said, "God must have loved the common people for he made so many of them. He would have been nearer the truth had he said, "God must have loved uncommon people for he made so many of them. All you need to do is to set up a "norm" or "average," then convince your subject he does not measure up. A psychologist wanted to find out how feelings of inferiority affected ability to solve problems. Once you see this simple, rather self-evident truth, accept it and be- lieve it, your inferior feelings will vanish. Our currently held beliefs, whether good or bad, true or false, were formed without effort, with no sense of strain, and without the exercise of "will power. It follows that we must employ the same process in forming new beliefs, or new habits, that is, in a relaxed condition. It has been amply demonstrated that attempting to use effort or will power to change beliefs or to cure bad habits has an adverse, rather than a beneficial effect. Emile Coué, the little French pharmacist who astonished the world around 1920 with the results he obtained with "the power of suggestion," insisted that effort was the one big reason most people failed to utilize their inner powers. Another famous Coué saying was his "Law of Reversed Effort": "When the will and the imagination are in conflict, the imagination invariably wins the day. Knight Dunlap made a lifelong study of habits and learning processes and perhaps performed more experiments along this line than any other psycholo- gist. His methods succeeded in curing such habits as nail- biting, thumb-sucking, facial tics, and more serious habits where other methods had failed. Making an effort to refrain from the habit, actually re- inforced the habit, he found. His experiments proved that the best way to break a habit is to form a clear mental image of the desired end result, and to practice without effort toward reaching that goal. Dunlap found that either "positive practice" (refraining from the habit) or "nega- tive practice" (performing the habit consciously and volun- tarily), would have beneficial effect provided the desired end result was kept constantly in mind. The im- portant factor in learning, in short, is the thought of an objective to be attained, either as a specific behavior pat- tern or as the result of the behavior, together with a de- sire for the attainment of the object. Greene, found- er of the National Hospital for Speech Disorders, New York City, had a motto: "When they can relax, they can talk. Chappell has pointed out that often the effort or "will power" used to fight against or resist worry, is the very thing that perpetuates worry and keeps it going. Physical relaxation also, in it- self, has a powerful influence in "dehypnotizing" us from negative attitudes and reaction patterns. Consciously "let go" the various muscle groups as much as possible without making too much of an effort of it.

R. Denpok. Alcorn State University.

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