W. Kurt. New England College. 2019.
Recovery discount 100mg labetalol, however effective labetalol 100mg, is typically slow in this variable purchase labetalol 100 mg visa, and in a routine examination the next question is likely to be introduced before recovery is complete. On the other hand, long term changes in skin resistance may have a certain significance. A decrease in resistance which persists for a long period might be more significant of deception than one which has a quick recovery. In any case there is reason to believe that the significance of a change is related to the base level obtaining before it begins (17). Not all available instruments have a provision for readily determining base level and long persisting trends. The resistance measuring principle seems most satisfactory; a constant current is passed through S, the I/R drop across him is measured, and its fluctuations recorded. Such a circuit with a device for automatically setting the recording pen back on scale is described in the Indiana report. For satisfactory recording nonpolarizing electrodes are required, although some commercial suppliers seem to overlook this necessity. The investigation was concerned, however, only with the short term decreases that follow questions with about a 2-sec latency. The interpretation of the response is certainly made difficult by the confounding adaptation trend, and an interview needs to be planned to allow for such a trend, results being evaluated with regard to it. In fact, at the usual recording -148- speed pulse rate changes (represented in the blood pressure record) would be very hard to discover. The rate, in the form of cycle time, was included in the comparison of the Indiana study. The technique was to use a somewhat faster paper speed and make actual measurements of the time occupied by a certain number of beats. Contrary to the usual expectation the predominant response to questions is a slowing of the rate, reaching a maximum after about 5 sec. This response is in part also the one produced by loud noises (10), threats of shock (17), and many other types of stimuli not requiring considerable muscular movement. In comparison with the other variables of the comparative study the pulse rate variable discriminates moderately well. To be interpreted immediately the rate would need to be recorded by a tachometer such as the one described in (13) or that manufactured by the Yellow Springs Instrument Company. Since these instruments are operated by the electrocardiogram, they are a bit uncertain if S is not in a shielded room. The physiologic function is the pulsatile change in the volume of some part such as the finger. The reaction to stimuli is typically a decrease in the amplitude of the pulse wave, which is a manifestation of constriction of the arterioles in the region. This reaction is produced by questions in an interrogation and is greater when S is lying than when telling the truth. Under certain circumstances in a moderately long series of questions the response differentiates well between truth and lying. The electrical impedance plethysmograph has the considerable advantage of convenience in attachment. The constriction recorded by the plethysmograph is closely related -149- to a rise in blood pressure recordings. The effects recorded are variations of the blood pressure rather than local conditions at the site of pickup. The pulsatile variations are the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. A measure of this sort was tested in the Indiana study with rather poor results in detection of deception and more recent studies of other conditions (9) also suggest it is a rather unsatisfactory variable. Probably systolic and diastolic are correlated positively to a substantial degree, but as one or the other has a greater increase, the pressure pulse goes one way or the other. Although muscular tension can be recorded by other means than electrical, the operating difficulties of the electrical method are less with suitable equipment and the records more interpretable. The output of this needs to be integrated in one way or another to make it easily read (17). However, the test must as yet be considered exploratory and needs repetition for statistical reasons. An important technical limitation is the necessity for having S in a shielded room (for example, grounded fly screen), which could be easily provided only in some central laboratory. If S wished he could contract the measured muscle upon each ques- -150- tion and thus confuse the record, although the strategy would probably not occur to him. Such a movement would also have the effect of disturbing all the usual measures of lie detection, and evidently is not a common occurrence. The use of the method has some interesting possibilities since conflict between two responses can be recorded (17). If two or more visual targets are provided the eyes may unconsciously turn toward one or another in response to a question. The method lends itself well to the map or picture exploration method (see the following). A substudy of the Indiana lie detection research tested the power of the ocular movements as a detector with good results. At least under special experimental conditions good discrimination can be obtained. It involves photographing the eye movements with art ophthalmograph and evaluating the record after it has been developed. The variable measured is primarily the pressure increase in the artery that follows a heart systole and is propagated through the fluid in the artery in a manner fairly well described by a known equation. The Washington State group has worked on a device that would do this automatically. The velocity, according to the equation, depends on the level of blood pressure, and it would seem that in the same individual, variations in pressure would be the principal source of variation in velocity. Since the pickups would be activated by pulse pressure, and since pulse pressure is quite variable itself, it seems probable that such -151- a device would require a good deal of monitoring of sensitivity to give suitable readings. The scheme is also rather complex and seems to be an alternative to the simpler method of recording pressure described previously. According to one method, gastric or intestinal activity is recorded from surface electrodes attached to S, one on the abdomen and one on the arm. A probable handicap of the method is the extreme slowness of response and recovery in this sector; it might be necessary to space questions several minutes apart. The problem expected is that under interview conditions the alpha rhythm would probably be blocked most of the time, and there would be very little opportunity for it to exhibit the "arousal" or "alerting" reaction. In other words, the variable may be too sensitive to all sorts of stimuli and reach its maximum response, as it were, too readily, but no one can be certain this would happen without a trial. An integrator is not generally used in connection with it, though such a transformation might in fact be useful. Interrogation Procedures Certain general facts and a few known particulars indicate how prior conditions may affect detection results. Adaptation Effects A general effect that needs to be taken into account is the rule of adaptation. Almost all the response variables discussed are known to become less responsive with repeated stimulation, some at a greater, -152- some at a lesser rate (10). Beyond influencing the choice of variable this fact should also regulate procedure. Interrogation would be expected to become progressively less effective as it proceeds, and the diminishing returns would limit length of session: one cannot detect a difference between responses that are practically nonexistent. In other words, instrumental detection would not be expected to combine well with a "wear-them-down" procedure. Furthermore, questioning or stimulation of other sorts before the instrumental session would undoubtedly also produce a deadening of response. Immediately following a period of highly disturbing events it is possible that an S might be induced to tell the truth, but the situation would be a poor one for instrumental methods, since S is already in such a high state of excitement that increments in the response variables would be small. This can be inferred from experimental results, but it would be well to have direct confirmation. For similar reasons, possibly because of the same adaptation mechanism, a condition of fatigue or prolonged sleeplessness would be unfavorable in discriminating truth from falsehood. This suggestion accords with the common experience of being "too tired to care one way or the other. By the same token one would expect alcohol and barbiturates, and perhaps tranquilizers, to be unfavorable to detection.
The method is one of some precision cheap 100mg labetalol with visa, and provides results which are rather more reproducible than those obtained by simple ignition discount labetalol 100mg mastercard. Loss on Drying Loss on drying reflects the net weight of a pharmaceutical substance being dried at a specified tempera- ture either at an atmospheric or under reduced pressure for a stipulated duration with a specific quantity of the substance purchase 100mg labetalol with mastercard. Clarity and Colour of Solution When a pharmaceutical substance is made to dissolve at a known concentration in a specified solvent it gives rise to a clear solution that may be either clear or possess a definite colouration. Heavy Metals Various tests are prescribed in the offcial compendia to control heavy metal e. Hence, a stringent limit is recommended for the presence of heavy metals in medicinal compounds. Specific Tests In fact, certain known impurities are present in a number of pharmaceutical substances. The presence of such impurities may be carried out by performing prescribed specific tests in various official compendia in order to ascertain their presence within the stipulated limits. Obviously the amount of any single impurity present in an official substance is usually small, and therefore, the normal visible-reaction-response to any test for that impurity is also quite small. Hence, it is necessary and important to design the individual test in such a manner so as to avoid possible errors in the hands of various analysts. It may be achieved by taking into consideration the following three cardinal factors, namely : (a) Specificity of the Tests : A test employed as a limit test should imply some sort of selective reaction with the trace impurity. It has been observed that a less specific test which limits a number of possible impurities rather instantly has a positive edge over the highly specific tests. Exmaple : Contamination of Pb2+ and other heavy metal impurities in Alum is precipitated by thioacetamide as their respective sulphides at pH 3. The sensitivity is governed by a number of variable factors having a common objective to yield reproducible results, for instance : (i) Gravimetric Analysis : The precipitation is guided by the concentration of the solute and of the precipitating reagent, reaction time, reaction temperature and the nature and amount of other substance(s) present in solution. A number of such tests shall be discussed here briefly with specific examples wherever possible and necessary : 1. Limits of Insoluble Matter The limits of insoluble matter present in pharmaceutical substances and stated in various official com- pendia are given below : S. Boric Acid Alcohol insoluble substances Absence of metallic borates and insoluble impurities 2. Chloramine Alcohol-insoluble matter : Sodium chloride impurity : Shake 1 g for 30 mts. The residue washed with 5 m1 of ethanol (96% v/v) and dried at 100 to 105°C and weighed. Filter, wash the residue on the filter with hot alcohol (90% v/v) until the washings cease to be coloured violet. In the same vein, tests for clarity of solution offer another means of limiting insoluble parent drug sub- stances in their correspondingly more highly water-soluble derivatives. Limits of Soluble Matter In order to detect the presence of some very specific impurities normally present in the official substances the limits of soluble impurities have been laid down in different pharmacopoeias. Water-soluble medium) filter through paper, previously washed with a mixture of 10 barium salts are highly ml dil. Magnesium : Prepare the sample solution by adding 10 ml Magnesium : of a 1% w/v soln. Limits of Moisture, Volatile Matter and Residual Solvents A good number of pharmaceutical substances usually absorb moisture on storage thereby causing deterioration. Such an anomaly can be safely restricted and limited by imposing an essential requirement for the loss in weight (Loss on Drying) when the pharmaceutical chemical is subjected to drying under specified conditions. The quantum of heat that may be applied to the substance varies widely as per the following norms : (a) Nature of the substance (b) Decomposition characterisics of the substance. Various official compendia recommended different temperatures and duration of drying either at atmos- pheric or reduced pressure (vacuum). Pharmaceutical Substance Drying Conditions Drying Time Prescribed Limit (°C) (Hrs. Pharmaceutical Substance Drying Conditions Drying Time Prescribed Limit (°C) (Hrs) (%) Inorganic Salt Hydrates : l. The chromatographic procedure may be carried out by employing : (a) A stainless-steel column (1 m × 2 mm) packed with porous polymer beads e. From the chromatograms obtained and taking into account any water detectable in solution (1), calculate the percentage w/w of water taking 0. Limits of Non-Volatile Matter Pharmaceutical chemicals belonging to the domain of inorganic as well as organic substances containing readily volatile matter for which the various official compendia prescribe limits of non-volatile matter. It is pertinent to mention here that the Pharmacopoeia usually makes a clear distinction between substances that are readily volatile and substances that are volatile upon strong ignition, for instance : (a) Readily Volatile : e. Limits of Residue on Ignition In fact, the limits of residue on ignition are basically applicable to the following two categories of pharmaceutical substances, namely : (a) Those which are completely volatile when ignited e. Limits of Loss on Ignition Official compendia include the limits of ‘loss on ignition’ which is generally applied to relatively stable pharmaceutical substances that are likely to contain thermolabile impurities. Limits on Ash Value The ash values usually represent the inorganic residue present in official herbal drugs and pharmaceuti- cal substances. These values are categorized into four heads, namely : (a) Ash Value (Total Ash), (b) Acid-Insoluble Ash, (c) Sulphated Ash, and (d) Water-Soluble Ash. These values would be explained with the help of some typical examples stated below : 1. Ash Value (Total Ash) Ash value normally designates the presence of inorganic salts e. The official ash values are of prime importance in examination of the purity of powdered drugs as enumerated below : (i) To detect and check adulteration with exhausted drugs e. The most common procedure recommended for crude drugs is described below : Procedure : Incinerate 2 to 3 g of the ground drug in a tared platinum or silica dish at a temperature not exceeding 450°C until free from carbon. Acid-Insoluble Ash The method described above for ‘total ash’ present in crude drugs containing calcium oxalate has certain serious anomalies, namely : • Offers variable results upon ashing based on the conditions of ignition. Hence, the treatment of the ‘total ash’ with acid virtually leaves silica exclusively and thus comparatively forms a better test to detect and limit excess of soil in the drug than does the ash. Repeat until the difference between two successive weighings is not more than l mg. Calculate the percentage of acid-insoluble ash with reference to the air-dried drug. Sulphated Ash The estimation of ‘sulphated ash’ is broadly employed in the case of : (a) Unorganized drugs e. The general method for the determination of ‘sulphated ash’ is enumerated below : Procedure : Heat a silica or platimum crucible to redness for 30 minutes, allow to cool in a desiccator and weigh. Place a suitable quantity of the substance being examined, accurately weighed in the crucible, add 2 ml of 1 M sulphuric acid and heat, first on a waterbath and then cautiously over a flame to about 600°C. Continue heating until all black particles have disappeared and then allow to cool. Add a few drops of 1 M sulphuric acid, heat to ignition as before and allow to cool. Add a few drops of a 16% solution of ammonium carbonate, evaporate to dryness and cautiously ignite. Following are the examples to depict the ‘sulphated ash’ present in various official pharmaceutical chemicals : S. Water-Soluble Ash Water-soluble ash is specifically useful in detecting such samples which have been extracted with water. Now, calculate the percentage of water-soluble ash with reference to the air-dried drug. A typical example of an official drug is that of ‘Ginger’, the water-soluble ash of which is found to be not more than 6. These impurities very often creep into the final product through a number of means stated below, namely : (a) Through atmospheric pollution. In short, all prescribed tests for impurities in the Pharmacopoeia usually fix certain limits of tolerance. For lead, arsenic and iron general quantitative or limit tests are precisely laid down which, with necessary variations and modification are rigidly applicable to pharmaceutical substances. Limit Tests for Lead Theory : The offcial test is based on the conversion of traces of lead salts present in the pharmaceutical substances to lead sulphide, which is obtained in colloidal form by the addition of sodium sulphide in an alkaline medium achieved by a fairly high concentration of ammonium acetate. The reaction may be expressed as follows : PbCl2 + Na2S → PbS B + 2NaCl The brown colour, caused due to colloidal lead sulphide in the test solution is compared with that produced from a known amount of lead. Equipment : Nessler Cylinders (or Nessler Glasses) : According to the British Standard Specifica- tion No : 612, 966—a pair of cylinders made of the same glass and having the same diameter with a graduation mark at the same height from the base in both cylinders (Figure 1).
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