Azathioprine and cyclosporine have not been Key references 295 studied adequately cheap 0.15 mg levlen mastercard, and exposure in the first trimester has not been adequately assessed discount 0.15mg levlen overnight delivery. However buy 0.15mg levlen visa, organ transplant rejection is life-threatening and any risk is outweighed by the benefit. Review of the course and outcome of 100 pregnancies in 84 women treated with tacrolimus. Neonatal bone abnormalities attributable to maternal administration of magnesium sulphate. The substances most frequently used during pregnancy include: alcohol, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and tobacco. Alcohol use with tobacco is frequently part of a polydrug use, but a small percentage of women use only alcohol. Typically, preg- nant substance abusers are dependent on public assistance for medical care (Slutsker et al. According to some sources (Rouse, 1996), prevalence is as high as 70–90 percent of the population and women between 15 and 40 years of age use such substances and often conceive while using them (Finnegan, 1994). There are substantial health risks for pregnant women and their unborn children because of social and illicit substance use during gestation. The most critical period for the induction of congenital anomalies is the first trimester (specifically the first 58 days postconception) (see Chapter 1, Introduction to drugs in pregnancy). Importantly, most women do not know that they are pregnant dur- ing early gestation. Their usual life style practices are thus superimposed on the critical period of pregnancy, embryogenesis. Fetal development in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy is also a time of great vulnerability, and continued substance use during this period also carries the risk of atypical development (i. Virtually every substance of abuse for which there is informa- tion crosses the placenta (Box 16. The intake interview and medical history-taking process should be sufficiently thorough to discover information regard- ing the use of potentially dangerous substances. Upon discovery of an exposure, the important second step is to determine timing of exposures during pregnancy, and the nature and extent of the social or illicit substance use. If the exposure actually occurred during gestation, the obstetrician needs to know as much as possible about the terato- genic and toxic potentials of the substance or combinations of substances. The physician may have his or her own resources for researching the topic or may refer the patient to a specialist. Medicolegally, the physician must disclose fully to the patient medically known risks that are posed by maternal substance abuse. This disclosure should also be documented in the medical record in a clear and concise manner. It is extremely impor- tant that the physician emphasizes to the patient that the use of social or illicit sub- stances is totally contraindicated during the course of pregnancy. These are not theoretical concerns because we have assisted in the defense of physicians sued for adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by substance abuse, despite the physician’s appropriate counseling that the patient chose to ignore. The risk–benefit ratio for substance abuse during pregnancy is easily explained to be increased risk with no benefit. The patient consultation, particularly this aspect, must be documented in the medical record to show that the risk was recognized and patient appropriately advised. Patients have been asked to initial or sign counseling notes regarding substance abuse during pregnancy to acknowledge that they received and understood counseling. Patient consultation Pregnant women usually admit to some use of a substance, but rarely do they admit that they have a ‘problem’ with social or illicit substance. Once some substance use is admit- 298 Substance abuse during pregnancy ted, two tandem approaches to the history-taking process are suggested. Differences in substance use between weekdays and weekends are important to ascertain, because it is common for the user’s pattern of use to differ greatly between these two time periods. The patient should describe her daily activities, including any substances used, from awaken- ing to going to sleep at night on a normal weekday. The patient should be asked when she begins drinking or using drugs during the course of a day and the duration of such use. For example, does the patient use the sub- stance as an ‘eye-opener’ in the morning (Sokol et al. The patient should be asked to disclose how much of the substance is used in an average day and approximately how much would be consumed in an hour. Combined with information about the weekly pattern (weekend versus weekday), a semiquantita- tive estimate of the amount and frequency of substance use can be made. Alcohol use during pregnancy is well studied and crude risks of fetal alcohol syn- drome can actually be made by estimating the average daily dose. With other less well- researched substances used during pregnancy, daily dose information can be used only to assess the severity of maternal addiction. Very serious dependencies are, of course, associated with more severe adverse effects. At the outset, the physician should explain to the patient that the purpose of obtaining this personal and private informa- tion is to better manage the pregnancy, i. The author’s spouse is an attorney, and states that no release should ever be signed and that each person must protect their individual rights to privacy assertively. Another important aspect of patient consultation is to provide information regarding specific risks from substance use (Tables 16. The most ethical and legally sound approach is to provide information that may be verified directly with the medical litera- ture. Ultimately, the clinical conclusion/treatment is that social and illicit substance use during pregnancy is contraindicated because of the associated maternal and embryo fetal risks. The need for services to assist pregnant substance users is being recognized, and pro- grams exist in most areas. For assistance in locating such a treatment program, the physi- cian can contact their local substance abuse service, or their state’s commission on sub- stance abuse that accredits treatment facilities. Ideally, the pregnant substance user should be managed by the obstetrician in conjunction with a program designed to promote absti- nence or at least to reduce the substance use during pregnancy. The medical positions of abstinence and treatment are the only appropriate ones clinically and legally. One’s medical mal- practice insurance provider is often the most economical and efficient source of legal infor- mation as this service is often included as a provision of a medical malpractice policy. Drug injec- tion sites on the upper forearm (‘track marks’) are strong evidence of a serious substance use problem, but this is not frequently observed. Substances of abuse usually have an anorectic effect and often result in poor weight gain during pregnancy. Other possible signs of substance use during pregnancy include new-onset ‘spontaneously arising’ heart murmur and hypertension not associated with preeclampsia. Heart murmurs occur with increased frequency among women who are Clinical evaluation 301 chronic substance users. Heart murmurs also occur in association with bacterial endocarditis or a history of this disease. Chronic substance use can induce hypertension in the nonpregnant adult, although not all have been studied for hypertensive effects dur- ing pregnancy. Cocaine, heroin, and tobacco use is known to be associated with hyper- tension during pregnancy (Abel, 1980a,b; Little et al. In addition, abruptio placentae or a history of this serious complication is also an indication that substance use may be a factor. Risk of abruptio placentae may be as high as 1–2 percent among substance abusers compared to 0. A history of stillbirths may, along with other risk fac- tors, be a clue to the obstetrician that substance abuse is a complicating factor. Hidden risks of substance abuse: impurities All substances of abuse, even alcohol, may be contaminated by certain impurities. Amphetamine and methampheta- mines may contain impurities, such as lead oxides (Allcott et al. Leaded gasoline is sometimes used as the solvent, resulting in lead contamination in the extraction of cocaine paste from cocoa leaves. If not fully reacted, cyanide may be contained in the final product because illicit laboratories are usually crudely equipped for purification, with no quality control. Lead and cyanide poisoning have resulted from the use of illic- itly manufactured substances and are associated with significant maternal–fetal morbid- ity and mortality. Drugs avail- able as tablets or capsules (for example, codeine, methadone, morphine, benzodi- azepines, pentazocine) contain a significant amount of the tablet/capsule vehicle agent (usually more than 97 percent), typically microcrystalline cellulose.
In starkcontrast discount levlen 0.15mg with mastercard, the most obvious disturbance in depression is melancholia that often co-exists with behavioural and somatic changes (Table 20 purchase levlen 0.15 mg otc. A major difficulty in unravelling the neurobiological basis of depression is that it is not a simple cheap levlen 0.15mg without prescription, unitary disorder. Also, whereas about 33% of patients recover spontaneously, about the same proportion do not respond to any treatment and only about 60±70% of patients who do respond show any improvement with the first drug of choice. There is an urgent need to find a solution to these problems, though, because this is a debilitating disorder that affects about 1 in 10 women and 1 in 50 men at some stage in their life. In over half of these cases, the depression recurs and about 15% of depressives commit suicide. These statistics alone stress the urgency of finding more effective and safer treatments for depression but this requires a better understanding of its underlying neurobiology and the mechanism(s) of action of existing drug treatments. At that time, reserpine was used as an Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function. These behaviours, and consequently those in humans, were attributed to the depletion of neuronal vesicular stores of monoamines and the reduction in monoamine transmission caused by this drug. In fact, these patients, when given iproniazid, could become quite disruptive and this action was regarded as an undesirable side-effect! However, its beneficial effects in depression were soon recognised and it was regarded as the first effective antidepressant drug. Reserpine blocks vesicular uptake of monoamines which, as a consequence, leak from the storage vesicles into the cytosol. It is now known that, when the concentration of cytoplasmic monoamines is increased in this way, they are exported to the synapse on membrane-bound monoamine trans- porters. The ensuing increase in monoamine transmission, despite the depletion of the vesicular pool, presumably accounts for the effects of iproniazid on the behaviour of reserpine-pretreated rats. In 1958, another agent, imipramine, was discovered by chance to have beneficial effects in depression. Drawing all this evidence together, Schildkraut (1965) concluded that depression was caused by a functional deficit of noradrenergic transmission in the brain. He also thought that the rebound depression and fatigue, which are experienced after the arousing effects of amphetamine have worn off, were due to depletion of neuronal stores of noradrenaline. To this day, there is controversy over whether or not amphetamine has a beneficial effect in depression. Another proposed that a deficit in both noradrenergic and serotonergic transmission is to blame (Maas 1975). Others have argued that an imbalance in the functional output of these two systems is the key factor (Ricci and Wellman 1990). However, they all share a common theme: that disruption of some aspect of monoaminergic transmission in the brain is a causal factor in depression. It is remarkable that, although this theory is often challenged, it has not yet been replaced by a validated alternative and, to this day, central noradrenergic and/or serotonergic systems are primary targets for all established antidepressant drugs. One is to lookfor the neurobiological basis of depression in human subjects and animal models of this condition. The second is to investigate the pharmacology of established antidepressant agents to see whether they consistently augment some, and ideally the same, neurobiological targets in the brain. For obvious reasons, the majority has looked for changes that might affect monoamine function and so the following sections concentrate on these neurotransmitters. For instance, it is not at all certain that neurochemical changes in the plasma or urine give any reliable indication of what is happening in the brain. Measurements in post-mortem brain tissue do not have this problem but the unavoidable delay in collecting tissue samples intro- duces another. Confirmation of the diagnostic status of the subjects is often difficult (especially retrospectively) and any drug treatments they had taken could distort the results. So far, evidence for abnormal peripheral (Elliott 1992) or central (Horton 1992) monoamine function in depression is equivocal, and no consistent biochemical markers have emerged to provide a firm linkbetween the two (Table 20. However, this abnormality is now believed to be associated with a deficit in control of behavioural impulsivity, rather than depression. Evidence for a linkbetween monoaminergic transmission and the therapeutic effects of antidepressant agents is more convincing. Depletion of noradrenaline stores (achieved by administration of the noradrenaline synthesis inhibitor, a-methyl-p-tyrosine) causes a resurgence of depression in patients who are in remission following treatment with antidepressants that selectively target noradrenergic neurons. However, patients who respond to antidepressants that act primarily on serotonergic neurons are unaffected (Delgado et al. It seems that the therapeutic effects of different anti- depressants could well rest on augmenting particular components of central monoamine transmission, whether or not depression itself is explained by a deficit in the functional output of these neurons. One is to provide a behavioural model that can be used to screen potential antidepressant treatments. For this, the behaviour does not have to be an animal analogue of depression: all that is needed is for it to be consistently prevented by established antidepressant agents (i. A second objective is to produce behavioural changes in animals that are analogous to depression so that the model can be used to discover its neurobiological cause(s). This is a far more demanding problem and its success rests on satisfying at least three criteria (see Willner 1984): face validity (i. Procedures that have been suggested as models of depression and used to lookfor neurochemical changes that parallel the onset of the behavioural change, as well as to test how antidepressants affect the behaviour, are listed in Table 20. Those that have been used most, either as a drug screen or in research into the neurobiology of depression, are as follows. These changes echo many of the problems experienced by depressives (disruption of appetite and sleep patterns and cognitive deficits). Also, as in many depressed patients, the concentration of plasma corticosteroids is increased in rats after olfactory bulbectomy (see later). This pattern of changes suggests that bulbectomy disrupts links between limbic areas of the brain and the hypothalamus. Its validity as a model of depression is supported by findings that all physiological and behavioural changes resulting from bulbectomy, that have been reported so far, are normalised by antidepressants from different generic groups. Subsequent work has concentrated on rats and mice, which show a similar behavioural response. Whether or not learned helplessness really is an analogue of depression remains controversial (Maier 1993). Nevertheless, escape deficits in rats are prevented by pretreatment with antidepressants from different generic groups. One of the earliest and most consistent findings with this model was a marked depletion of noradrenaline stores in certain brain regions, particularly the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus, of mice that have been exposed to inescapable shock. One school of thought proposes that exhaustion of releasable noradrena- line in the neurons projecting to these brain regions underlies learned helplessness (Anisman and Zacharko 1991). Others highlight the depletion of noradrenaline stores in the locus coeruleus and suggest that a reduction in the release of noradrenaline in this nucleus diminishes the a2-autoreceptor-mediated feedbackinhibition of neuronal firing and that the resulting neuronal hyperactivity explains learned helplessness (Weiss et al. These two theories obviously differ in respect of whether it is an increase or a decrease in noradrenergic transmission in the terminal field that could account for depression. One problem with both these theories is that disruption of noradrenergic trans- mission by selective adrenoceptor antagonists has little impact on the development of escape deficits. However, such antagonists do prevent the reversal of learned helpless- ness by antidepressants (reviewed by Stanford 1995). Also, it would be most unlikely that a deficit in only one neurotransmitter system fully accounts for learned helpless- ness. In short, the widespread neurochemical disruption during learned helplessness suggests that antidepressant drugs could prevent this syndrome by targeting any of several different neurotransmitter systems. Many antidepressants delay the onset and duration of immobility and this action has been widely adopted as a preclinical screen for novel compounds (Porsolt et al. Nevertheless, the behavioural deficits all respond, with varying degrees of specificity, to established antidepressants and central monoamines appear to have a crucial role in the therapeutic effects of these drugs. Some drugs even combine reuptake inhibition with actions which increase transmitter release. Whereas the newer antidepressants are a great improvement in terms of safety and tolerability, imipramine still remains the bench- markfor efficacy. Full appraisals of antidepressants that are already in the clinic and those that are currently under development, together with their likely clinical and commercial impact, are to be found in Cheetham and Heal (2000) and Heal and Cheetham (1999).
After four months levlen 0.15mg line, nearly all of the diabetes patients no longer had traditional signs of diabetes 0.15 mg levlen visa. Their blood sugar and insulin levels dropped to near normal—something that medications could not achieve 0.15mg levlen mastercard. Even more importantly, the “gold standard” diagnostic measure of diabetes—blood levels of hemoglobin A1c (sugar-damaged proteins that age cells)—also dropped to normal. In addition, more than 85 percent of the patients reported improvements in the common diabetic symptoms of excessive thirst, frequent urination and fatigue. After four months of treatment with chromium, insulin resistance was reduced by 40 percent. About 70 percent of both types of diabetes patients show improved insulin responsiveness after taking 200 mcg supplemental chromium per day. Some experience such improved insulin sensitivity that they are able to reduce the amount of insulin they inject or the amount of other blood-sugar-lowering medications they take. Gestational diabetes is a transitional diabetes that develops during pregnancy and can cause numerous health problems, including loss of the child. According to one study, just eight weeks of supplementation with chromium picolinate can significantly improve glucose intolerance and reduce blood sugar and insulin levels in those with gestational diabetes, thereby reducing the risk of health trouble for both mother and child. Fortunately, chromium supplementation can lead to improvements in the body’s handling of blood sugar in both cases. In one study, steroid-induced diabetes was ameliorated in 38 of 41 patients following supplementation of 200 mcg of chromium three times per day. This occurred even though blood-sugar-lowering drugs were reduced 50 percent in all patients who were given chromium supplements. Although researchers still don’t know exactly how chromium does its magic, chromium helps insulin work more efficiently to allow blood glucose to move from the blood into the cells. The Recommended Daily Allowance Committee recommends 50-200 mcg of chromium per day. Unfortunately, the vast majority of Americans doesn’t obtain even the minimum 50 mcg of chromium from their daily diets. There is no evidence of toxic effects related to chromium supplementation in chromium supplementation in humans or animals. For all of these reasons, some think supplementation with chromium picolinate is a must to try with diabetes patients. It’s a prudent, safe, well-tested nutritional approach that more often than not will offer your patients impressive benefits in their condition and their symptoms. Diabetes is treated by many with prescription medications following a timely diagnosis by a physician. It is also true many people do not know or they don’t have faith that plenty of locally available natural foods serve the best to reduce blood sugars accumulated in the circulation system. If you are worried about what you are fighting All Day Long with diabetes you can be benefited by consuming the following magic foods to slash down the spiking blood sugar in the blood stream. In addition to these they contain a good amount of complex carbohydrates that are needed for healthy body building. With this angle, it is strongly recommended by health professionals that French beans are the best food source to eliminate blood sugars. Brussels sprouts It is recommended by most of the dietitians that the juice of Brussels sprout can help triggering your insulin production. The juice can be taken with an equal volume of juice of French beans for better effect in lowering blood sugar levels. Lettuce Lettuce as a green vegetable has gained popularity among Americans following the certification of American Diabetes Association. It has got star recognition as one best diabetic diet food containing low cholesterol and low fats. It is projected among the diabetics as the best food to include the potential to lower blood sugar levels. Tomatoes It is great that tomatoes that are used in daily cookery contribute to certain extent to lose body weight. Tomatoes can be eaten in raw as salad, and it is claimed that recipes without tomatoes cuttings are waste and losing taste. Here our concern is the medicinal component that the tomatoes constitute the cheap and best delicious food to control blood sugar levels. Do you feel that the above gifts of Nature are good diabetic foods or diabetic medicines? Indeed, these are the double barreled rifles to shoot down the sugar levels in the blood stream. They are double barreled in the sense that they serve as kitchen mates as well as naturopathic medicines to help reducing blood sugar to keep off diabetes. Gestational Diabetes Diagnosed at Lower Blood Glucose Levels Posted Feb 26 2010 4:10am A new international study involving 23,000 women in nine countries suggests that more than twice as many mothers to be as previously thought will develop gestational diabetes. This finding is based on new measurements for determining dangerous blood sugar levels for the mother and her unborn baby. Previous guidelines to diagnose gestational diabetes were based on blood sugar levels that identified women at high risk for developing diabetes in the future. According to the new study coordinated by investigators at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, a fasting blood sugar level of 92 or higher, a one-hour level of 180 or higher on a glucose tolerance test or a two-hour level of 153 or higher on a glucose tolerance test constitute serious risks to the mother and baby. Previously, these levels had been considered in the safe, normal range, and two elevated levels were required for a diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Complications of gestational diabetes include overweight babies with high insulin levels, early deliveries, cesarean section deliveries and potentially life-threatening preeclampsia, a condition in which the mother has high blood pressure that affects her and the baby. Women with mild gestational diabetes, however, who are treated with lifestyle and diet changes as well as blood sugar monitoring, greatly reduce their risk of complications. The study, which demonstrated more than 16 percent of the entire population of pregnant women qualified as having gestational diabetes, will be published in the March issue of Diabetes Care , a journal of the American Diabetes Association. Growing up, she was always good for a chocolate bar or a mouthful of toffee when the need arose. Even though she ate all that candy my grandmother was also very healthy with the exception of being mildly diabetic. She would buy this stuff, boil it in water, let it cool and then make us kids drink it under pain of being cut off from our candy supplier. The researchers recorded the patients’ sugar levels both without food intake for 12-24 hours and after taking 75g of glucose. They then administered a bitter melon pulp suspension to diabetic patients and 86 out of the 100 responded to the vegetable intake, showing a significant 14% reduction in fasting and post-meal serum glucose levels. Several rat and hamster trials taking bitter melon have also yielded very positive results in regulating glucose levels. A more up to date study conducted in India at the Ahilya University in 2004 gave similar positive results. Fifteen men and women with Type 2 diabetes between the ages of 52 and 65 took 200mg extracted constituents of bitter melon together with half doses of Metformin and Glibenclamide or a combination of both. The result was a blood glucose level lower than what patients may acquire from taking full doses of Metformin or Glibenclamide. Turmeric, Kukuma Diabetes Control Herbs Turmeric The available information on turmeric is widespread, and compelling. It is a traditional treatment specifically for diabetes, and many sources cite studies that have shown positive results for lowering blood sugar. I found references frequently to Ayurvedic medicine, which may or may not recommend itself to you as a valid point in its favor. It is said to act on blood sugar levels both in increasing metabolism and stimulating insulin. Turmeric is a common spice, and is used in cooking, sometimes as a cheap alternative to saffron, and sometimes in pickles and other common uses. Information on safety of this herb is also lacking, possibly because safety is assumed because of its widespread use as a spice. But there is a huge difference between using something in the minute quantities of a seasoning, and using it in larger doses as a medicinal supplement. Diabetes is rapidly spreading across globe, at present in America fifteen million people are treated for this condition. Diabetes natural remedies are effective and are safe compared to conventional medicines. I have listed some of the diabetes natural remedies that will be very useful in bringing it down. Clinical studies and many experiments results have clearly shown that bitter melon contain compounds with anti diabetic properties.
It is used for insufficient ovary function purchase 0.15 mg levlen otc, for postmenopausal or postcastration disorders best levlen 0.15 mg, infertility generic 0.15 mg levlen fast delivery, postmature pregnancies, weak uterine contractions, and after gynecological operations. Synonyms of this drug are foliculin, detoxyestrin, telestrin, bestrone, and many others. Reduction of the keto-group in this molecule by hydrogen using a Raney nickel catalyst and subsequent acylation of the resulting hydroxyl group with benzoyl chloride forms a diester (28. This compound undergoes bromination with molecular bromine, just as in the method described for making estrone, which results in the formation of a dibromide (28. This product undergoes dehydrobromination when heated in collidine, giving a dienone (28. When heated in tetraline to a temperature about 325 °C, methane mole- cule cleaves off the position 10 followed by aromatization of the ring A, and the desired estra- diol (28. Methyl ester of estrone is reacted with iso- propenylacetate in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, forming the corresponding enolacetate (28. It is used in the premenopausal and menopausal periods, for skin atrophy and signs of genital degeneration, and so on. Female Sex Hormones As a matter of fact, ethinylestradiol differs structurally from estradiol in the presence of an ethynyl group at C17. However, this difference in structure leads to a significant increase in estrogenic activity of the drug. Synonyms of this drug are progynon, binordin, gestrol, ovranet, oural, and many others. Hexestrol is made in a Wurtz dimerization reaction of 1-bromo-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)propane (28. Subsequent removal of the methoxy protective groups from the resulting dimerization product (28. According to one of them, desoxyansoine is alky- lated by ethyl iodide in the presence of sodium ethoxide, and the resulting ketone (28. Dehydration of this compound by distillation in the presence of p-toluenesul- fonic acid gives dimethyl ether of stilbestrol (28. Next, the resulting pinacone undergoes a pinacone rearrangement by a reaction with hydrochloric acid, forming ketone (28. The keto-group in this compound is reduced using sodium in isoamyl alcohol, which gives the corresponding carbinol (28. The resulting carbinol is treated with hydrochloric acid, which is simultaneously dehydrated and the rearranges into diethylstilbestrol (28. Synonyms of this drug are distil- ben, menopax, stilphostrol, tilosteron, antigestil, and many others. These are synthetic, nonsteroid substances that likely act by blocking estrogenic receptors, thus suppressing them and the effects of estrogen. By binding with these same receptors in small doses, they exhibit a moderate estrogenic effect, and only in large doses do they exhibit antiestrogenic action. They are used as drugs that enhance functional activ- ity of ovaries typically in female infertility, but also for treating estrogen-receptors posi- tive breast cancer. The main antiestrogenic drugs are used in medical practice as synthetic drugs of clomifene and tamoxifen, which belong to the diethylstilbestrol group. This is reacted with benzylmagnesium chloride in a Grignard reaction, forming as a result the corresponding carbinol (28. Female Sex Hormones chloride gives 2-[p-(1,2-diphenylvinyl) phenoxy]triethylamine (28. The primary indica- tion for using clomifene is induction of ovulation in non-ovulating women who still have some estrogen production. Clomifene is used for infertility in order to increase reproduc- tive properties of oligoovulatory women who have three or four ovulatory cycles per year, leading to normal monthly ovulation. Interaction of this with 4- methoxyphenylmagnesium bromide gives the corresponding carbinol (28. The phenolic hydroxyl is further alkylated by dimethy- laminoethylchoride using sodium ethoxide as a base, which forms a mixture of E and Z isomers of the final product. It is used for palliative treatment of estro- gen-receptor positive breast cancer. Progesterone is a hormone produced by steroidogenic tissues—the corpus luteum and the placenta. Progesterone prepares the endometrium for implantation of the oocyte, prevents ovulation, and facilitates increased glandular tissue in the mammary glands. Its structure is more similar to the structure of the male sex hormone testosterone, differing only in the substituent on C17 (acetyl group instead of a hydroxyl group), than to female sex hormones estrone or estrols. Progesterone is considered as a pregnancy hormone since it is made during the entire pregnancy, and it increases excitability and contractability of the uterus while simultane- ously preventing new oocytes from maturing. The result of its action is prevention of forming oocytes equal to that of temporarily sterile women. Female Sex Hormones new method of preventing pregnancy by maintaining an artificial hormonal state of pseudopregnancy. Progestins are used for various menstrual cycle disorders, for functional uterine bleeding of various origins, and as a contraceptive. Progestin therapy is also used to treat endometrio- sis and endometrial carcinomas. Progesterone is not effective when taken orally due to inten- sive metabolism, and therefore it is used by either parenteral or transvaginal introduction. A number of active, synthetic progestins have been made for the use as oral contracep- tives that have more activity and more prolonged action than progesterone. Moreover, var- ious conclusions have been made relative to the modification of progesterone structures for making new progestins. It has been shown that progesterone significantly loses its charac- teristic biological activity when a hydroxyl group is added at position C17. At the same time, esterification of the hydroxyl group by long-chained fatty acids, such as caproic acid, leads to formation of long-lasting, parenterally introduced progestin, oxyprogesterone caproate. Extremely effective progestins are C17 ethynyl derivatives linestrenol, norgestrel, and norethindrone, which provide highly effective contraception. Pregnenolon itself is made by subsequent oxidation and further cleavage of the side chain of stigmasterin, a sterin of plant origin that is iso- lated from soybeans. Synonyms of this drug are progestasert, sinergon, cyclogest, progestol, proluton, and many others. Dehydropregnenolon itself is made by successive decomposition and oxidation of the side spiroketal group of diosgenin—the agly- cone of one of the saponins of plant origin isolated from Discorea. The double bond at C16–C17 or dehydropregnenolon is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a base to give an epoxide (28. Interaction of the resulting epoxide with hydrogen bromide in acetic acid forms a bromohydrin (28. The hydroxyl group of C3 of the steroid system is formylated by formic acid, and reduction by hydrogen over a palladium catalyst removes the bromine atom at C16, forming the product (28. The hydroxyl group at C17 of this prod- uct is acylated by acetic acid anhydride and then the formyl group at C3 is oxidized by alu- minum isopropylate in the presence of cyclohexanone, during which simultaneous isomerization takes place at the double bond, isomerizes from C5–C6 to position C4–C5, forming the desired hydroprogesterone ester, in the given case an acetate (28. It is used for men- strual disorders, amenorrhea, threatening miscarriage, and other pathological processes associated with corpus luteum insufficiency. Female Sex Hormones As a representitive of the compounds of the class of progestins, this drug is used for vari- ous forms of cancer, in particular cancer of the breast, kidneys, and others. The conjugated with the double bond carbonyl group at C3 is then transformed to dienol ethyl ether (28. The obtained product is ethynylated by acety- lene in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide. After hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, of the formed O-potassium derivative, during which the enol ether is also hydrolyzed, and the remaining double bond is shifted, the desired norethindrone (28. It causes the mucous membranes of the uterus to move into the secretory phase, which facilitates devel- opment of impregnated oocytes. It is used for amenorrhea, uterine bleeding, infertility, miscarriage, myoma, mastopathy, endometrial cancer, and other pathologies. It makes it less active than progesterone; however, this drug retains its activity when taken orally, which provides highly effective contraception.
The faster you tap purchase 0.15mg levlen fast delivery, the greater the frequency of current pulses and the lower this kind of resistance becomes order levlen 0.15 mg with visa. Remember to take an intermission of twenty minutes and then repeat to avoid catching new viruses buy levlen 0.15 mg with mastercard. Wrap each handhold with 9 volt battery one layer of wet paper 2 short (12”) alligator clip leads (from towel. Place each on a any electronics shop) 2 copper pipes, ¾” diameter, 4” long non-conductive surface, (from a hardware store) like a plastic bag. Connect the positive battery terminal to one handhold and the negative terminal to the other handhold using alligator clip leads. When you get tired pick up the left handhold with your left hand and tap with your right hand. Connect positive termi- nals of the batteries to each other, and the negatives also. Everything liv- ing on you or in you, not just to perch, but to take its food from you is a parasite. But in some way the big worms need to be distinguished from the medium-sized amoebae, the even smaller bacteria and the smallest of all—viruses. Roundworms are round like earthworms even though they may be as thin as hairs (threadworms, filaria) or micro- scopically small (like Trichinella). They have a way to attach themselves sometimes with the head (scolex) like tapeworms, sometimes with a special sucker like flukes. Worms Flatworms Roundworms Tapeworms Flukes Threadworms Pinworms Hookworms Worm parasites go through stages of development that can look very, very different from the adult. The favorite organ for Dirofilaria (dog heartworm) is the heart (even human heart). My tests show Dirofilaria can live in other organs, too, if they are sufficiently polluted with solvents, metals and other toxins. If you are a meat eater, you could eat such a cyst if it happens to be lodged in the meat you are eating! The little larva is swallowed and tries to attach itself to your intestine with its head. They come out of their metacercarial cyst as a small adult and quickly attach themselves to the intestine with a sucker. Four common flukes are: human intestinal fluke, human liver fluke, sheep liver fluke, pancreatic fluke of cattle. Has cilia, can swim vigorously and must find intermediate snail host in one to two hours or may be too exhausted to in- vade. Those are "mother" redia, and each one bears "daughter" redia for up to 8 months, all still inside the snail, and living on the fluids in the lymphatic spaces. If the snail is feeding on a plant, cercaria can latch onto plant with sucker mouth and start to encyst (form a "cocoon") within minutes. But as you eat the plant it is stuck to, the least pressure will break it, leaving the cyst in the mouth. The "almost unbreakable" inner cyst wall protects it from chewing, and the keratin-like coat prevents digestion by stomach juices. However when it reaches the duodenum, contact with intestinal juices dissolves away the cyst-wall and frees it. It then fastens itself to the intestinal lining and begins to develop into an adult. Note that the adult is the only stage that “normally” lives in the human (and then only in the intestine). Fasciolopsis depends on a snail, called a secondary host, for part of its life cycle. If propyl alcohol is the solvent, the intestinal fluke is invited to use another organ as a secondary host—this organ will become cancerous. If xylene (or toluene) are the solvents, I typically see any of four flukes using the brain as a secondary host. I call the diseases caused by fluke stages in inappropriate locations Fluke Disease; it is discussed in more detail later (page 249). Pollutants can invade your body via the air you breath, the foods and beverages you eat, and the products you put on your skin. The one who did not assumes the cream is not harmful to them…that they are like a bank vault, impreg- nable to that product. A better assumption is that the face cream is somewhat toxic, as evidenced by the rash that can develop, and they escaped the rash only because they had a stronger im- mune system. The immune system is like money, paid out of the bank vault, for every toxic invasion. Most other solvents dissolve fats and are life threatening, because fats form the membrane wall around each of our cells, especially our nerve cells. Metal Pollution Biochemists know that a mineral in raw element form always inhibits the enzyme using that mineral. Inorganic copper, like you would get from a copper bottomed kettle or copper plumbing, is 3 carcinogenic. We put metal jewelry on our skin, eat bread baked in metal pans, and drink water from metal plumbing. Mercury amalgam fillings, despite the assurances of the American Dental Association, are not safe. And sometimes the mercury is polluted with thallium, even more toxic than mercury! Gold and silver seem to have fewer harmful effects, but no one should have any pure metal in or on their body. Other prevalent toxic metals include lead and cadmium from soldered and galvanized plumbing, nickel and chromium from dentalware and cosmetics, and aluminum from food and drink cans, and cooking pots. From Carcinogenicity and Metal Ions, volume 10, page 61, of a series called Metal Ions in Biological Systems, edited by Helmut Sigel, 1980. One small moldy fruit or vegetable can pol- lute a huge batch of juice, jam or other product. Although molds are alive, and can be killed by zapping, mycotoxins are not, and must be detoxified by your liver. But because mycotoxins are so extremely poisonous, a tiny amount can incapacitate a part of the liver for days! For that reason I am always cautioning people to eat only perfect citrus fruit, and never drink commercial fruit juice. Of the thousands of oranges that go into the batch of orange juice you drink, one is sure to be moldy, and that is all it takes to give your liver a setback. It also helps get rid of aflatoxin before it is consumed, right in the food container. So keep a plastic shaker of vitamin C powder handy and use it like salt on all your food. Physical Toxins Breathing in dust is quite bad for you so your body rejects it by sneezing, coughing, spitting up and out. But because it is sharp it gets caught in your tissue, then works its way deeper and deeper. We are unaware that it fills our homes when fiberglass insulation is left imperfectly sealed off. Any hole made through the ceiling or wall, even if covered with cloth, lets swarms of broken glass bits into the house air. Of course, fiberglass should never be used in home construction, draperies, or around water heaters. The best advice is to have it all removed while you are away and then vacuum and dust. Chronic exposure from a single small hole in the ceiling does a lot of harm, leading to cyst formation. And that cyst is a perfect place for parasites and bacteria to settle and multiply. Asbestos is another tiny bit, sharp as glass, that moves through your body like a swordfish, impaling your cells until it, too, gets routed into a cyst. We have been led to believe that we no longer have asbestos in our homes because we have outlawed the fireproofing mate- rials it was used in.
Since pulmonary venous blood does not completely equilibrate with alveolar pO2 when passing through the lungs discount 0.15 mg levlen amex, pulmonary venous pO2 (and thus also systemic arterial pO2) is about 95 torr levlen 0.15mg with visa, corresponding to a hemoglobin saturation of 95-97% buy 0.15 mg levlen free shipping. In the body tissues, oxygen is extracted, and systemic venous pO2 decreases to approximately 40 torr (hemoglobin saturation of approximately 70%). There are two components of oxygen in the blood: dissolved oxygen and hemoglobin-bound oxygen. Dissolved oxygen is a linear function of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) whereas hemoglobin-bound oxygen is determined by the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve (see above). The course of the fetal circulation is schematically illustrated in Figures 1-1, 1-2 and 1-5. We will examine the anatomy and physiology of the fetal circulation, and review the incredible changes which occur in the perinatal transitional period (Figure 2-1) eventually leading to the adult circulation (Figure 2-2). Several structures which play an important role in the fetal circulation, including the placenta, umbilical cord (including the umbilical arteries and umbilical vein), ductus venosus, foremen ovale, and ductus arteriosus. The only means of communication between the fetus and the outside world is the placenta. The placenta is embryologically derived from both maternal and fetal tissue, and the blood supply of the two components normally remains separate. However, the placenta is not as efficient an oxygen delivery organ as are the lungs, so that the maximum volume of oxygen that can be exchanged is limited by the venous pO2 of placental blood. The umbilical arteries are branches from the fetal iliac Fetal Circulation & Congenital Heart Disease - Daniel Bernstein, M. When the umbilical vein enters the abdomen, it courses in a cephalad direction on the underside of the anterior abdominal wall. Where the inferior vena cava enters the right atrium there is a flap of tissue known as the Eustachian valve. This valve helps direct inferior vena caval blood flow preferentially across the foramen ovale. The foramen ovale is a flap valve (shaped somewhat like a windsock) in the interatrial septum. Because the pulmonary circulation is vasoconstricted during fetal life, the lungs receive only a small percentage of fetal right ventricular output, which preferentially flows through the ductus arteriosus to the lower resistance lower body circulation and to the placenta (because of its high vascular cross-sectional area, the placenta is a very low resistance vascular bed). As we shall see later, the fetal left ventricle ejects mainly into the ascending aorta and the fetal right ventricle into the descending aorta, essentially as two separate or parallel circulations. The area of the aortic arch between the head and neck vessels and the ductus arteriosus (called the aortic isthmus) carries only approximately 10% of fetal cardiac output. Experiments in fetal lambs show that division of this part of the aortic arch does not significantly affect the “parallel” fetal circulation. In the fetus, because there are communications between the pulmonary and systemic circulations at several levels (great arteries via the ductus, atria via the foremen ovale) the fetal pulmonary and systemic blood flows are not exactly equal, with the right ventricle transiting slightly higher volumes of blood flow. There are also important differences in fetal intracardiac pressures, oxygen saturations and vascular resistances in comparison to the newborn or to the adult. Figure 1-2 shows the intracardiac and intravascular pressures in the late-gestation fetus. The ductus arteriosus is a large communication between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta, thus pressure in the pulmonary artery and aorta are approximately equal although resistance in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the fetal descending aorta, resulting in blood flowing right to left across the ductus arteriosus. Fetal right and left ventricular pressures are also equal because they are both coupled to the systemic circulation. Systemic arterial pressures in the fetus are lower than adult values, whereas fetal pulmonary arterial pressures are higher than those in the adult. Although the maternal systemic arterial pO2 is about 95 torr, the pO2 of the maternal venous side of the placenta is only about 40 torr. Furthermore, the pO2 of fetal blood does not equilibrate totally with the pO2 of maternal blood during passage through the vasculature of the placenta. Due to the higher oxygen binding affinity of fetal hemoglobin, this low pO2 corresponds to an oxygen saturation of about 70%, which is still quite low compared with the normal post- natal systemic oxygen saturation (Figure 1-2. Umbilical venous blood has the highest oxygen saturation in the fetus (70%), having just returned from the placenta (Figure 1-2). This stream of oxygenated blood is then preferentially shunted across the foremen ovale, further increasing the oxygen saturation of the blood entering the left atrium. Blood from the left atrium enters the left ventricle, and from there is delivered mostly to the upper body, brain and (via the coronary arteries) to the myocardium itself. From the right ventricle, blood is pumped via the pulmonary artery across the ductus arteriosus to the descending aorta and primarily supplies the lower body and placenta. A small portion of right ventricular blood (approximately 7%) flows from the pulmonary arteries directly into the lungs. The fetal circulation is essentially a parallel rather than a series one: the right ventricle pumps blood predominantly to the lower body; the left ventricle predominantly to the upper body. Figure 2-3 shows the actual volumes of Fetal Circulation & Congenital Heart Disease - Daniel Bernstein, M. Compare these volumes with the volumes of blood passing through the heart post- natally (Figure 2-4). This degree of right ventricular dominance is less pronounced in the human, mainly because of the much large brain size in the human requiring larger volumes of ascending aortic (and thus left ventricular blood flow). The volumes of blood ml/min/kg that flow through ejected by each ventricle and various chambers and vessels in returning to each atria are similar the late-gestation fetus. About 2/3 of the descending aorta flow goes to the placenta, whereas the rest goes to the fetal lower body. Certainly, heart rate does vary in the fetus, but there is controversy about how important are changes in stroke volume. A lesion which results in even a modest perturbation in the patterns of fetal blood flows, can markedly influence cardiac development. For example, a fetus with a moderate degree of aortic stenosis (valve narrowing) at mid-gestation will have increased resistance to filling of the left ventricle. This will result in less blood flowing across the forman ovale less blood flowing through the left ventricle during fetal development. It has long been hypothesized that normal cardiac chamber development in the fetus is dependent on normal blood flows. We can now prove this hypothesis by following such a fetus serially (from mid-gestation to term) using echocardiography. In many (but not all) cases, the left ventricle will fail to grow proportionately with the rest of the heart, resulting in severe hypoplasia of the left ventricle (hypoplastic left heart syndrome) in the newborn. As we have seen above, fetal pulmonary pressure is high while flow is low, thus fetal pulmonary vascular resistance is high compared to the adult circulation. In the next section we will see how the dramatic changes in pulmonary blood flow occurring in the perinatal period are responsible for many of the changes of the transitional circulation. Three fetal structures are critical for the maintenance of this parallel circulation: the ductus venosus, the foramen ovale, and the ductus arteriosus. The net result of the fetal flow pattern is that the more highly oxygenated and nutrient enriched (umbilical venous) blood tends to be preferentially distributed to the fetal organs which have the greatest metabolic demands: the brain and the heart. Subtle alterations in this pattern of fetal Fetal Circulation & Congenital Heart Disease - Daniel Bernstein, M. Respiratory efforts by the newborn will now cause room air (pO2 approximately 100 torr) to be inhaled while alveolar gases are expelled. Several major changes in the cardiovascular system must therefore occur in order for the transition from the placental to the pulmonary circulation to proceed. Changes also occur in the pulmonary arterial tree such that the lumina enlarge while the walls thin, although this process takes several weeks before it is fully complete. It has been shown that many factors influence pulmonary vascular tone, physical as well as hormonal. For example, expansion of the lungs alone (without altering fetal pO2) decreases pulmonary vascular resistance compared to the unventilated lung. There is then a further decrease in resistance when lung expansion is followed by ventilation of the lungs with oxygen (Fig. Since an increase in fetal alveolar pO2 (which should increase pulmonary venous pO2) can cause pulmonary vasodilation independent of increases in arterial pO2, it has been shown that diffusion of alveolar oxygen into precapillary vessels mediates the vasodilatory response. Of interest, when investigators increased fetal arterial pO2 without expansion of the lungs or Fetal Circulation & Congenital Heart Disease - Daniel Bernstein, M. There are a number of vasoactive agents which have been shown to affect the fetal pulmonary vascular bed.
Membrane oxygenators contain a large surface area for gas diffusion within a compact enclosure generic 0.15mg levlen fast delivery. The gas-permeable membrane material used is generic levlen 0.15mg line, in fact order 0.15mg levlen with visa, microporous, further increasing the contact surface area for gas exchange. Surgical needs dictate the placement of the arterial cannula in other locations, such as subclavian and femoral vessels. Proper size selection is critical, as too small a diameter can lead to excessive pressure gradients and hemolysis. Small size and outflow misdirection can cause jetting effects which can injure arterial walls and break off atheroemboli. Anticoagulation requirement All surfaces coming in contact with blood during extracorporeal circulation are thrombogenic. Heparin is a mixture of polyanionic sulfated mucopolysaccharides of different molecular weights. This is done by means of an in-vitro standardized clotting reaction using contact activation with a special clay. In summary, heparin’s advantages for cardiac surgery are its low cost, long-standing experience in use, simple quantitative assay, and availability of a specific antidote. Newer direct thrombin inhibitors, such as lepirudin, bivalirudin, or argatroban, have been used. Their major disadvantage is the lack of specific “reversal” agents, thus increasing the likelihood of post-operative bleeding. This is achieved by means of perfusing the myocardium with a cardioplegia solution. The use of cold cardioplegia also realizes the advantages of myocardial hypothermia. The ionic mechanism for cardioplegia is based on the moderate + elevation of extracellular [K ] to 15-20 mM, which induces a lasting depolarization of the sarcolemma, according to the Nernst equation: Cardiac Anesthesia and Bypass - Max Kanevsky, M. This modest depolarization (to about –65 mV) causes voltage- gated sodium channels to inactivate, rendering them unavailable for generating action potentials. A number of additives have been tried in order to enhance the cardioprotective properties of cardioplegia, e. Antegrade: following aortic crossclamping, cardioplegia is infused proximally into the aortic root from which it enters coronary ostia. The major limitation is that severe coronary artery stenosis may prevent spread of cardioplegia into at-risk myocardium. Retrograde: cardioplegia is given into the coronary sinus from which it travels retrograde via coronary veins into the myocardial capillaries. Following the removal of the cross clamp, the heart is reperfused with blood and returns to spontaneous electrical activity, although not always in sinus rhythm. Whenever left-sided chambers are surgically entered, there is a threat of arterial air emboli. It is placed percutaneously through the groin; the balloon resides in the descending aorta. These come in many designs and, in some cases, may be left in place for a prolonged period while the patient awaits recovery or a heart transplant. Details of this process and the means of dealing with it are an area of active research. Endovascular approaches to cardiac valve repair (aortic, mitral) are being aggressively pursued as well, often enabling patients who are too frail for traditional open-heart valve replacement to reap the benefits of improved valvular mechanics and cardiac performance. In one sense, the answer is simple: it is the type of perfusion that produces the best outcome for the patients. The implication is that this type of perfusion would be most beneficial (or least damaging) to vital organs and tissues. The answers become complex when one looks for the single best perfusion strategy in terms of variables that are under the direct control of surgeons, anesthesiologists, and perfusionists. The types of circuits used, coatings, adjuvants (especially anti-inflammatory drugs), the use of ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning, and the degree of hypothermia are all being closely investigated. However, deep hypothermia increases blood viscosity and can lead to sludging and even occlusion of small blood vessels. Therefore, the desire to maximize tissue oxygen delivery by increasing the hemoglobin concentration is offset by the negative rheological consequences of high Hgb. In the setting of hypothermia management of the acid/base status is non-trivial, as well, owing to the increased plasma solubility of carbon dioxide gas at lower temperatures. Should the patient’s arterial blood gases be corrected to the actual patient temperature (the pH-stat strategy) or not (alpha-stat)? The strategy chosen may need to vary depending on individual patient’s characteristics. Even in this simple scenario, the optimal parameters of blood pressure are controversial. A minimal pressure threshold likely exists, below which the brain and other important organs are taken outside of their autoregulatory range. This minimum value, moreover, varies with the patient’s pre-existing hypertensive disease. Not necessarily, as higher pump flows needed to raise the pressure are more damaging to vessel walls and, accordingly, tend to increase the atheroembolic burden to end organs. These indices provide suggestions as to how to improve organ perfusion in an individual patient in real time. Collected from a cohort of subjects, they can be correlated with specific postoperative outcomes of end-organ dysfunction (myocardial damage, renal failure, brain injury) or, more likely, their surrogates (cardiac enzymes leaks, increases in serum creatinine, lower neurocognitive scores, respectively). The evidence-based answers to the question of optimal perfusion are just now beginning to emerge. Pulsatile and nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass: review of a counterproductive controversy. Cardiopulmonary bypass management and neurologic outcomes: an evidence-based appraisal of current practices. Shift from principally aerobic to principally anaerobic metabolism Exercise Physiology - Robert Fishman, M. Causes: Any lesion, from alveolus to mitochondrion, that blocks O2 delivery and utilization a. Ventilatory Response to Exercise V (L/mE in) Tidal volume Respiratory rate (L) (breaths / min) Rest 6 0. During exercise: 1) Anatomic dead space (tethering effect of high lung volumes on the conducting airways) 2). Normal subjects at rest have substantial flow and volume reserve to call upon during exercise 2. Despite greater extraction of O2 in the periphery, blood is reoxygenated due to: a. Understand the roles that nitric oxide plays in the function of vascular endothelial cells and in the development of atherosclerosis. Understand the rationale for their use in the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by impediment to left ventricular emptying and/or left ventricular filling. However, it is also a disorder in which overly active compensatory mechanisms play an important role in disease progression. Recall that at longer muscle lengths the force developed by cardiac muscle fibers increases progressively until the Lmax point. There also appears to be a relationship between sarcomere length and myofilament sensitivity to Ca+2, with 2. When force generated and muscle length are plotted for cardiac muscle, one observes that greater force occurs as muscle length increases until the Lmax is exceeded (see Figure 1). The resting force of cardiac muscle gradually increases until the Lmax is reached, at which point it rises abruptly. At the organ level the relationship between force generated and muscle length still holds.
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