For fill of container cheap lotrisone 10 mg with amex, the sample Disc 4—Grey (N4) (mat finish) unit shall be the entire contents of the container discount 10mg lotrisone with amex. Any sample unit shall diffused daylight or under a diffused be regarded as defective when the sam- light source of approximately 2691 lux ple unit does not meet the criteria set (250 footcandles) and having a spectral forth in the standards lotrisone 10mg for sale. The max- under a moderately overcast sky, with imum number of defective sample units a correlated color temperature of 7,500 permitted in the sample in order to degrees Kelvin ±200 degrees. With the consider the lot as meeting the speci- light source directly over the disc and fied requirements. Elec- sample units permitted in a lot that tronic color meters may be used as an will be accepted approximately 95 per- alternate means of determining the cent of the time. If salt has been added either inten- (d) Strength and redness of color means tionally or through the application of at least as much red as is obtained by the acidified break, determine the per- comparison of the prepared product, cent of such added sodium chloride as with the blended color produced by specified in paragraph (f) of this sec- spinning a combination of the fol- tion. The resultant value (b) Shoestring or sliced lengthwise or is considered the percent of "tomato French style. Transversely cut pods not (f) Salt means sodium chloride, deter- less than 19 mm (0. Pods cut in Subpart B—Requirements for Spe- lengths as specified in paragraph cific Standardized Canned (a)(2)(iii)(d) of this section, except the Vegetables pods are cut at an angle approximately 45° to the longitudinal axis. Any mixture of two or more of the styles specified in para- (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned graph (a)(2)(iii)(a) to (f), inclusive, of green beans and canned wax beans are this section. In addition to of fresh green bean or wax bean plants the optional packing media listed in conforming to the characteristics of paragraph (a)(1) of this section and the Phaseolus vulgaris L. The optional color and va- gredient listed in paragraph (a)(2) of rietal types and styles of the bean in- this section, the following safe and gredient are set forth in paragraph suitable optional ingredients may be (a)(2) of this section. The beans ceeding in total 15 percent by weight of shall be one of the following distinct the finished product. When (b) The name of the optional varietal butter or margarine is added, emulsi- type as specified in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) fiers or stabilizers, or both, may be of this section, or the specific varietal added. Wax beans may be addition- tion of the bean pod or by a statement ally designated "golden" or "yellow". The diameter of (a) A declaration of any flavoring a whole, cut, diagonal cut, or short cut that characterizes the product as speci- is determined by measuring the thick- fied in §101. If (ii) In case there are present pods or the product consists of whole beans and 27 pieces of pods 10. A unit is con- (iii) The following may be included in sidered blemished when the aggregate the name of the food: blemished area exceeds the area of a (a) The word "stringless" where the circle 3 mm (1⁄8 in) in diameter. For unstemmed units per 340 g (12 oz) the purpose of this count, loose seeds, drained weight. Open and distribute the con- case the material consists of the op- tents of the container over the meshes tional ingredient specified in para- of a U. If the number of units per 340 tity of contents of the container is less g (12 oz. Two (iv) Remove from the tray the extra- minutes after drainage begins, weigh neous vegetable material, count, the sieve and the drained material. Record in grams (ounces) the weight so (v) Remove from the tray one or found, less the weight of the sieve, as more representative samples of 99 to the drained weight. Dry and weigh the 113 g (31⁄2 to 4 ounces) covering each empty container and subtract this sample as taken to prevent evapo- weight from the gross weight to obtain ration. Calculate the percent (vi) From each representative sample of drained liquid in the net weight. I (4–1–10 Edition) section, discard any loose seed and ex- dium hydroxide solution and bring to a traneous vegetable material and de- boil. Use a lengthwise), trim off, as far as the end rotor with two scalloped buttons of the space formerly occupied by the shaped as shown in exhibit 1 as follows: seed, any portion of pods from which the seed has become separated. Remove and discard any portions of seed from the trimmings and reserve the trim- mings for paragraph (b)(2)(viii) of this section. Deseed the trimmed pods and reserve the deseeded pods for paragraph (b)(2)(viii) of this section. Reserve these strings for testing as prescribed in paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section. In the case of pods sliced lengthwise, re- move seed and pieces of seed and re- serve the deseeded pods for use as pre- scribed in paragraph (b)(2)(viii) of this section. Count of water using a pressure not exceeding the string as tough if it supports the 250 g a head (vertical distance between upper (8. If the level of water and outlet of glass tube) string breaks before 5 seconds, test such of 152 cm (60 in. Wash the pulpy portion of the strings by the weight of the sample recorded material through the screen and con- in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section and tinue washing until the remaining fi- multiply by 340 to obtain the number of brous material, moistened with phenol- tough strings per 340 g (12 oz. Di- (b)(2)(vii) of this section, add such vide the weight of fibrous material by strings broken or unbroken. Weigh and the weight of combined deseeded pods, record weight of combined material. Wash material adhering to the pestle (ix) If the drained weight recorded in back into cup with 200 cc of boiling paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section was water. The determine the number of pieces of ex- product is of the optional styles speci- traneous vegetable material per 340 g fied in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. Such food is processed the drained weights in these containers by heat, in an appropriate manner, be- and multiply by 340. The optional styles referred deemed to be in compliance for extra- to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section neous plant material based on an aver- consist of succulent sweet corn of the age of all containers examined. The following standard in one only of the following safe and suitable optional ingredients respects: may be used: (i) "Excessive number very short (i) Salt. The name of the food is (a) Contains not more than 10 brown "corn" or "sweet corn" or "sugar or black discolored kernels or pieces of corn" and shall include a declaration of kernel per 600 g. Open and distribute the con- (b) Contains not more than 1 cubic tents of the container over the meshes centimeter of pieces of cob for each 400 of a U. Standard tion of the comminuted material Series)," under the heading "Defini- equivalent to approximately 10 g. Without shifting the covering the dish with a tight fitting material on the sieve, so incline the cover, cooling it in a desiccator, and sieve at approximately 17–20° angle to promptly weighing to the nearest 0. After the filter paper is fitted to the the time drainage begins, weigh the funnel, apply suction and transfer the sieve and the drained material. Dry and weigh the empty con- tainer and subtract this weight from material on the filter with 80 percent the gross weight to obtain the net alcohol (by volume) until the washings weight. Place the black discolored kernels or pieces of cover on the dish, cool it in a desic- kernel and calculate the number per cator, and promptly weigh to the near- 400 g. Measure the aggregate length of (3) The method referred to in para- such pieces of silk and calculate the graph (b)(1) of this section for testing length of silk per 28 g. Spread the husk flat, this section) is as follows: measure its aggregate area, and cal- (i) Allow the container to stand at culate the area of husk per 400 g. Determine the gross weight, pieces of cob under a measured amount open, transfer the contents into a pan, of water in a cylinder which is so grad- and mix thoroughly in such a manner uated that the volume can be measured as not to incorporate air bubbles. Take the in- the net contents of a single container crease in volume as the aggregate vol- is less than 510 g. The and determine the alcohol-insoluble cone has an inside bottom diameter of solids as prescribed in paragraph 7. As soon as the (4) Determine compliance as specified cone is filled, lift it vertically. Dry and weigh each substandard quality specified in empty container and subtract the §130. Add enough water to new line as specified after the cor- bring the level within 9. Gently the canned corn fails to meet: wash the material on the sieve by com- (i)(a) or (ii)(a) "Excessive discolored ker- bined up-and-down and circular motion nels". Spread weight of the corn ingredient, deter- the husk flat and measure its aggre- mined by the procedure set forth in gate area and calculate the area per 600 §155.
For good detection a situation may be necessary where S is willing to gamble on a rather long chance with some hope of success discount 10mg lotrisone visa. To make this punishment theory cover the experimental results one needs to take "punishment" in a broad sense discount lotrisone 10 mg on line, since in experiments S quite often suffers no serious loss if he is detected generic lotrisone 10mg without prescription. He does, nevertheless, lose the game which he is playing and possibly this is -163- countable as a punishment. Once again there seems to be all opposition between procedures designed to secure information and those that would lead to the best instrumental detection. Present knowledge is not sufficient to lead to a decision on which, if any, of these three theories is correct. Since the theories here discussed are not mutually contradictory, it is quite possible that all the conditions referred to are actually operative in some degree in the detection situation. In that event detection would be best when critical questions are associated with somewhat traumatic past events, when S is threatened with possible but not certain punishment as a result of lying, and when critical questions, perhaps by reason of the uncertain consequences, arouse conflicting reactions in S. Although direct, practical experience is lacking, some general findings of laboratory experiments are applicable. The relevance of many of the experiments for the criminal detection problem suffers from the fact that they involved no "crime. From their success, we may conclude that crime is not essential for lie detection. Studies directed specifically to these distinctive problems would be required for more reliable conclusions regarding the applicability of findings from previous experimentation to practical employments in intelligence interrogations. One may suppose that the person questioned, typically, will have little personal involvement in information sought. The questions frequently will not be about something he has done or for which he feels responsible or guilty. Perhaps he is not very deeply motivated to conceal the specific items or information, but loyalties and threatened penalties may dispose him -164- to do so. If the source regards the matter as unimportant, the motivational aspects of the situation would be rather like those in the common demonstration of detecting which card has been picked from a deck, a trick not difficult to do as a parlor game when a "lie detector" is available. However, if the source is highly motivated toward concealment and anticipates reprisals if he "breaks," the situation is rather like crime detection. Special considerations also arise in the intelligence interrogation situation because of the kinds of people to be interrogated, their physiologic condition, their emotional state, and their attitudes. They differ from both the suspected criminals and the normal individuals or college students used in most experiments. The effect of factors like these is scarcely known for the groups already studied. One naturally speculates about the possibility of devising a few recording instruments that would need no attachment to S and might be concealed from him. Considering the complex problems attending overt electrodes and recorders, the information gained from hidden instruments is likely to be quite meager and unreliable. Furthermore, it is not certain that an S who is not aware of the process would actually respond in the same way as one who is. It would seem necessary that interrogators use the ordinary type of instrument and rely on persuasion or coercion to get subjects into it. There is still the possibility that sophisticated subjects would, under coercion, introduce confusion by moving about and controlling breathing. Nevertheless, on the basis of the facts known from laboratory and field work one might expect that the physiologic methods can be applied to intelligence interrogations with reasonable success. Summary In spite of the early scientific foundations of lie detection in the work of Benussi, Marston, Larson, and Summers (2, 22, 23, 29, 33, 34) there is at present a rather broad gap between current practice and -165- scientific knowledge. There is, on the one hand, some information from the laboratory, which could be applied, and there are procedures of questioning, developed in field work, which await experimental testing. Although variation in procedure and in selection of cases makes present field data quite difficult to evaluate, it does seem probable that a significant amount of detection is being secured by physiologic methods. Laboratory science can make some immediate contributions to the improvement of detection methods. Developments have made possible better instrumentation for the recording and analysis of variables which currently figure in criminal detection, and suggest the possibility of recording various others which could increase the accuracy of detection. For some of these additional variables, experimental evidence is already available, others have yet to be tested. Experiments have also yielded certain results that could be applied to interrogation procedures, of which the following are illustrative. The factor of adaption, differential to particular responses, could be allowed for systematically. The attitude of the examinee influences results considerably; they are better when he does not believe the instrument is infallible. Rather, clearer results are obtained when he believes he has a chance of winning the game. Pretesting of Ss in order to drop a few prospects from consideration would greatly improve the confidence users could have in results on those remaining. Beyond these facts, experimental evidence bears on a number of other practical matters, such as the order and nature of questions. Detailed instruction in these matters to personnel who might become exposed to such manipulations will go far in frustrating any interrogator who seeks to make use of them. With respect to the evaluation of results, experiments have done more to set the problem than to answer it. Various possibilities of statistical combinations and evaluations o responses have been tried, but the optimum method is not yet known. Much could be learned from planned experimental studies of the psychological basis of detection.. The difference might depend on a conditioned autonomic response, ona conflict of response tendencies, or on the chance of successful avoidance of punishment, or some combination of these. Knowledge of -166- these effects might provide a basis for the choice of conditions that would provoke the most discriminating kind of response. Improved electronic apparatus for measuring deception induced physiological changes. Subliminal perception, subception, unconscious perceptions: An analysis in terms of psycho-physical indicator methodology. However, over the years, too, evidence has been accruing to suggest that hypnosis is neither fraudulent as some have maintained nor is it so mysterious as to defy experimental analysis. Because of the apparent control of behavior during hypnosis it has understandably been proposed as a tool for interrogation. There is an utter dearth of literature concerning the actual use of hypnosis in interrogation. Either this technique has never been used, or if it has, no one has chosen to discuss it in print. Despite fairly extensive conversations with experts from a variety of countries, the author has found no one who admits to familiarity with its use in interrogation. An approximation to) such usage, however, does exist in isolated instances with criminal suspects. Since there is no direct evidence on this problem, it becomes necessary to analyze the issues and separately evaluate each question. This report will first consider the potential use of hypnosis in the interrogation of captured personnel. Three separate issues are involved here: (a) Can hypnosis be induced under conditions of interrogation? The second section will consider proposals advanced for the defensive uses of hypnosis, the problem being the feasibility of protecting personnel from enemy interrogation. Three suggestions will be evaluated: (a) the use of posthypnotic suggestions to prevent subsequent trance-induction; (b) the use of posthypnotic suggestions to induce amnesia on capture for sensitive information; and (c) the use of posthypnotic suggestions to make captured personnel more resistant to stress. In the final section a distinction will be drawn between what the hypnotic trance per se can accomplish and what the hypnotic situation as a social event may make possible. Some Theoretical Views Before discussing the possible use of hypnosis for interrogation, we should like to review briefly what is known about the nature of the state itself. It is true that in the absence of specific suggestions to the contrary the subject seems to be extremely passive and to become unusually dependent upon the hypnotist for direction.
The analysis of dynamics of average study pharmaceutical firm costs for items of fixed costs has shown that most of the articles have increased slightly buy lotrisone 10mg fast delivery, while other expenses decreased order lotrisone 10mg visa. At the last stage of our research we calculated the main indicators studied pharmaceutical firm work quality 10 mg lotrisone. An analysis of these calculations showed that every year due to a decrease in the level of trade overlays profitability decreased to 0,8%, which is very low, but in 2015 the amount of profit by increasing turnover increased. We have found that trade study pharmacy during the analyzed period increased an average of 1,078 times (7. The analysis studied pharmaceutical firm allowed to confirm the constant growth of expenses. It was found that the largest share in the total expenditure of pharmaceutical firms serving the public are wage costs - 49. Currently, the organization of effective medical and pharmaceutical care of patients suffering from depressive disorder in Ukraine is of great socio-economic importance. The introduction of modern multimodal antidepressants into the treatment of patients with depressive disorders allows using them for a long time to achieve full recovery and supports the premorbidal level of social functioning. Innovative drug Vortioxytine corresponds to the important contemporary requirements which are put forward for the treatment of depression, has not only a high efficiency in relation to affective symptoms, but also unique properties to enhance cognitive functioning and, consequently, the quality of life of the patient. However, the application of new approaches is complicated by the problem of its high cost. To make the analyzes of "willingness-to-pay" in the organization of treatment of patients with depressive disorders in Ukraine. The object of the research was the survey data of psychiatrists (55 persons) and family members of patients with severe depression (75 people), which was conducted during 2015 in Zaporozhye. The questionnaire worked up for physicians consisted of two parts, in the first part it was necessary to specify personal data (age, place of work, position, work experience in the position, etc. The aim of the second unit was to establish the attitudes of respondents towards the "willingness-to- pay" at the expense from personal funds and rationality of the real cost of treatment with the drug Vortioxytine from the perspective of the health system as a whole. The purpose of questioning of other suffering from depressive disorders patients was to identify the "willingness-to-pay" opportunities by private funds (before that, the respondents indicated the average monthly income per 1 person in the family ), the rationality of the real costs for the treatment with the medicine Vortioxytine from the standpoint of the patient (indicating the cost of its implementation) and determining the maximum "willingness-to-pay" for the expense of personal budget and the rationality of the real costs from the position of health care organization. In the last decade, the results of pharmacoeconomic analysis is widely used in the health care system of the developed countries, while taking such management decisions as registration of medicinal products, development of forms and clinical guidelines (recommendations, standards of conducting patients), to draw up a restrictive list of medical technologies, whicn should to be paid from the expense budget or social insurance. The most valuable for the decision makers, are considered 205 the results of the analysis "cost-effectiveness" and "cost-utility". The analysis of "cost- benefit" remains quite attractive for economists in the field of health care organization because only it gives an indication of economic (monetary) benefit of the technologies contributing to the restoration, preservation or promotion of health. In addition, the results give us an insight into the preferences of the population (potential market) and at the same time can be used for economic justification of the use of medicines. Among others patients the proportion of responses to questions was higher than that among health care workers – to assess "willingness-to-pay" for the personal expense without knowing the cost of treatment with Vortioxytine could 91. After the respondents were informed about the cost of the treatment, to evaluate "willingness-to-pay" could only 79. The study calculated the ratio of the absolute difference of the benefits and costs depending on the size of «willingness-to-pay» for pharmaceutical ensure of different groups of respondents. If we consider the responses of doctors, the use of Vortioxytine is obviously beneficial. But taking into the consideration the opinion of the patients‘ significant additional monetary investment is needed. Evaluation of "willingness-to-pay" which was conducted among physicians showed that 51% of respondents believe that all the expense for the treatment are to be carried out by the health care budget. One of the important issues was to assess the feasibility of the real costs of Vortioxytine. The answer was given after the respondents recognized the real costs to treat depression using Vortioxytine. Among the asked whether it is appropriate to apply Vortioxytine considering its real value and efficiency, responded "no" only around 17. Thus, the results of the study found out that the most "willingness- to-pay " for effective treatment was practitioners than average patients with depressive disorders. Considering the peculiarities of the health care system of Ukraine and the level of current financing, to ensure access of patients with depressive disorders it is necessary to conduct pharmacoeconomic analysis by the method of "risk sharing". Its results will justify a state procurement and establishing the price of the drug depending on the quantity (number of packages) for the treatment of depression, considering the limited financing of the branch. The scheme of partial state financing can also be implement for the expensive treatment involving 3 participants (the government – manufacturer – patient). It is only necessary to determine the percentage of reimbursement of expensive drugs in the case of the introduction of health insurance to ensure access of patients to high-tech means and methods of treatment. Medical insurance - a form of social protection in the interests of public health, resulting in a guaranteed payment of medical care in the event of an insurance case, due to the accumulated byinsurerfunds. The situation prevailing in the Ukraine in the field of public health requires immediate action. According to Article 9 of the Law of Ukraine ―On insurance‖ franchise - a part of the losses which is not compensated by the insurer under the insurance contract. Table 2 Health care facilities category The size of the franchise according to provides by insurance option health care facilities category 1 2 3 4 1, 2, 3, 4 0% 0% 0% 0% 2, 3, 4 20% 0% 0% 0% 3, 4 40% 20% 0% 0% 4 80% 60% 30% 0% For example, if the insured elected to service the medical institutions of the 3rd, 4th category, and assistance was provided in the institution 1 category, the franchise will be 40%. In this case, the insured person has their own reimburse 40%, and the insurer pays 60% of the cost of services. The development of medical science, improvement of living standards and the establishment of democratic institutions contributes to the requirements of health workers and increasing cases of disciplinary measures for improper performance of professional duties. However, health workers can potentially be held accountable for crimes under twelve articles of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, the Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offences and Civil Code of Ukraine. In the public mind, and formed a long time maintained naturally thought of the enormous responsibility of doctors for life and health. However, the reality of the last decade in Ukraine indicate that the urgency of the consideration of legal liability in medicine confirmed by the increasing number of claims with regard to various disorders during treatment. The aim of the study is to clarify aspects of the modern application of legal liability for health workers in Ukraine and abroad. In the modern Australian law there are two models of responsibility - objective and relative. The first is that medical officer responsible for injury victim, if the terms of an objective assessment of the average observer behavior is influenced by the doctor on the natural course of events. Instead, the relative responsibility model is 209 used when there is material damage caused as a result of treatment. The criterion for such damage is the general rules on goods, services, securities, profits and such others. In Ukraine, a long time it was mainly about the criminal methods of influence on offenders in medicine. The adoption of the new Civil Code of Ukraine, development of legislation on health care, the formation of judicial practice in cases of prosecution of health professionals indicates the presence of four fundamentally different types of doctors liable for offenses committed: criminal; civil (property); administration; disciplinary. Today, according to various sociological studies, doctors are more competent in matters of criminal liability, but increase in the prosecution of doctors to other types of liability causes to focus on their education. The key to quality of legislative work directed towards the improvement of legislation on health care, is a qualitative theoretical framework which should be formed as a result of comprehensive research involving lawyers, health care, doctors, practitioners and representatives of other interested parties. Therefore, we should focus on the need to provide effective remedies in domestic science and practice to address issues of accountability for health workers or that the damage caused to the health of the patient. Thus, physicians should clearly understand the responsibility that comes in the case of offenses and patients to be sure that the protection of rights and legitimate interests guaranteed by the state and society in law. The problem of full and timely immunization coverage of children‘s contingent of the population is highly important for Ukraine at the present stage. However, in recent years there has been a significant discrepancy in the existing results to the needed indicator, one of the reasons of which is a lack of reliable information for the population about the effectiveness of vaccination in the prevention of infectious diseases and contradictions of its legal nature, which causes distrust of the population to this measure and the refusal of parents to vaccinate their child. Considering the above, the aim of our study was to investigate the views of pediatricians, who among healthcare workers are the most involved in the process of children‘s vaccination, about legislative and ethical aspects of the children‘s routine vaccination. During the work the method of questionnaire survey, that is widely used in research of organizational and economic nature, was used. The questionnaire was carried out among pediatricians from Kharkiv, Sumy, Poltava, Kyiv, Cherkasy regions of Ukraine.
C. Fedor. Le Moyne College.
Richmond Rascals. 12 Richmond Hill. Richmond-Upon-Thames. TW10 6QX tel: 020 8948 2250