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Dual cham ber pacing for hypertrophic cardiom yopathy: a random ised double blind crossover trial generic exelon 4.5mg with mastercard. Niall G Mahon and W McKenna Diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardio- m yopathy in first degree relatives have been proposed as show n in Table 51 purchase 6mg exelon mastercard. Relatives are considered affected in the presence of one m ajor criterion or tw o m inor echocardiographic criteria or one m inor echocardiographic plus tw o m inor electro- cardiographic criteria 4.5 mg exelon fast delivery. These criteria do not apply w hen other potential causes such as athletic training, system ic arterial hyper- tension or obesity are present. Young children w ith no evidence of disease should be re-evaluated every 5 years until their teens and then annually until aged 21. Diagnosis in a child under 10 years requires a body surface area corrected left ventricular w all thickness of >10m m. Affected relatives should additionally undergo risk stratification, w hich includes 48 hour Holter m onitoring and exercise testing, looking especially for ventricular arrhythm ias and abnorm al blood pressure responses respectively. Niall G Mahon and W McKenna A protocol for the investigation of dilated cardiom yopathy should aim to confirm the diagnosis, rule out treatable causes, prevent potential com plications and determ ine prognosis. Cardiac dim ensions and systolic function are also of prognostic value, w ith an approxim ately 2-fold increase in relative risk of m ortality for every 10% decline in ejection fraction. Tw elve-lead electrocardiography and Holter m onitoring for arrhythm ias should be perform ed. O ccasionally a diagnosis of incessant tachycardia as a cause of the cardio- m yopathy m ay be m ade. Further investigation (such as for sarcoid or am yloid) should be guided by history and exam ination. O ther tests m ay also be perform ed, but are not indicated in every case: 1 Coronary angiography should be perform ed in patients over the age of 40 years, or w ho have risk factors or sym ptom s or signs suggestive of coronary disease. W hat is, how ever, clear is that a tissue histological diagnosis provides im portant prognostic inform ation w hich m ay (as in the case of sarcoidosis) have an im pact on treatm ent. In research centres, biopsy specim ens m ay be analysed by im m unohistochem ical and m olecular biological techniques to determ ine the presence or absence of low grade inflam m ation and viral persistence. Frequency of follow up w ill depend on the severity of involvem ent at initial presentation. The course of the disease at early follow up is a useful indicator of long term prognosis w ith im provem ent or deterioration occurring in m ost cases w ithin six m onths to one year of diagnosis. The possibility that the patient’s cardiom yopathy m ay be fam ilial should be explored by taking a detailed fam ily history, but incom plete and age-related penetrance m ake fam ily screening problem atic. The decision to evaluate (usually first degree) relatives should be individualised, based on the extent of disease w ithin a fam ily, the levels of anxiety am ong patients and relatives, the presence of suggestive sym ptom s and the extent of local experience in the evaluation of dilated cardiom yopathy. Predictive value of abnorm al signal-averaged electrocardiogram s in patients w ith non- ischem ic cardiom yopathy. Com parison of tim e dom ain and spectral turbulence analysis of the signal-averaged electrocardiogram for the prediction of prognosis in idiopathic dilated cardiom yopathy. Underlying causes and long- term survival in patients w ith initially unexplained cardiom yopathy. The survival advantages are consistent (m ortality reduction of about 20% ) and far outw eigh the relatively sm all risk of serious side effects. Calculations suggest that a reduction in m ortality could be achieved w ithout side effects after treating only 24 patients. In the subgroup of patients taking beta blockers, m ortality decreased in those taking captopril, com pared w ith losartan. Effects of enalapril on m ortality and the developm ent of heart failure in asym ptom atic patients w ith reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. Effect of captopril on m ortality and m orbidity in patients w ith left ventricular dysfunction after m yocardial infarction. Reporting risks and benefits of therapy by use of the concepts of unqualified success and unm itigated failure: applications to highly cited trials in cardiovascular m edicine. The effect of spironolactone on m orbidity and m ortality in patients w ith severe heart failure. Lionel H Opie There are three m ain groups of vasodilator therapies used in the treatm ent of chronic heart failure. Nitrates alone Nitrates on their ow n can be used interm ittently for relief of dyspnoea – not w ell docum ented, but logical to try. The continuous use of nitrates does, how ever, run the risk of nitrate tolerance, w hich in turn m ay be lessened by com bination w ith hydralazine. Hypothetically, part of the benefit in dilated cardiom yopathy could be by inhibition of cytokine production,3 and not by vasodilatation. Prevention of tolerance to hem o- dynam ic effects of nitrates w ith concom itant use of hydralazine in patients w ith chronic heart failure. Effect of am lodipine on m orbidity and m ortality in severe chronic heart failure. It is w ell know n that the only prospective trial that w as pow ered for m ortality, failed to show that digoxin could lessen deaths. O nce I had started digoxin, I w ould not hesitate to stop it if toxicity w ere suspected. But if the patient cam e to m e already taking digoxin w ith a low therapeutic blood level, and seem ed to be doing w ell, then I w ould not stop the drug. For exam ple, to take an extrem e case, if digoxin had potentially adverse effects, and actually killed patients, such an increase of m ortality could not be detected by assessing the effects of w ithdraw al of the drug from the survivors. References 1 The effect of digoxin on m ortality and m orbidity in patients w ith heart failure. The effect of spironolactone on m orbidity and m ortality in patients w ith severe heart failure. W ithdraw al of digoxin from patients w ith chronic heart failure treated w ith angiotensin- converting-enzym e inhibitors. Rakesh Sharma M ore than 25 years ago it w as proposed that beta blockers m ay be of benefit in heart failure1 and yet, until recently, there has been a general reluctance am ongst the m edical profession to prescribe them for this indication. This is not entirely surprising, as not too long ago heart failure w as w idely considered to be a m ajor contraindication for the use of beta blockers. Treatm ent should be initiated at a low dose and be increased gradually under supervised care. The patient should be m onitored for 2–3 hours after the initial dose and after each 100 Questions in Cardiology 119 subsequent dose increase to ensure that there is no deterioration in sym ptom s, significant bradycardia, or hypotension. In patients w ith suspected or know n renal im pairm ent, it is recom m ended that serum biochem istry is also m onitored. How ever, there are several im portant areas in w hich the effect of beta blocker therapy is unknow n. For exam ple, should w e be using beta blockers to treat asym ptom atic patients w ith evidence of systolic ventricular dysfunction and is there a role for beta blocker therapy in the patient post-m yocardial infarction w ho has ventricular im pairm ent? Evidence of a beneficial effect of beta blockers on the syndrom e of heart failure is accum ulating. The use of beta blockers in this context m ay prove to be one of the m ost im portant pharm aco- logical “re-discoveries” in cardiology in recent years. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of carvedilol in patients w ith m oderate to severe heart failure. The ninth and latest edition, published in 1994,1 retains an assessm ent of the functional capacity of the patient w ith heart disease (see Table 57. Despite this it rem ains a quick, sim ple and repro- ducible evaluation of the patient w ith heart failure. Survival of just 33% at tw o year follow up has been reported for this group in a Canadian study. The Fram ingham Heart Study4 is probably the largest survey of cardiovascular disease undertaken and has data on over 9000 patients, spanning tw o generations, w ith a m edian follow up of 14. The overall five year m ortality rates w ere reported as 75% for m en and 62% for w om en w ith a m edian survival of 1. The authors of this study4 em phasise the grim prognosis of this disease by m aking com parison to the m ortality rate for all cancers, w hich, betw een 1979 and 1984 w as reported as 50%. The overall prognosis for a patient diagnosed w ith heart failure is therefore really rather w retched. M any objective prognostic variables w ith equal or greater w eight in predicting heart failure m ortality have been elucidated,5 how ever, and account of these should be acknow ledged. O rdinary physical activity does not cause undue fatigue, palpitation, dyspnea, or anginal pain. O rdinary physical activity results in fatigue, palpitation, dyspnea, or anginal pain.
Miliary Tuberculosis in Critical Care 24 Helmut Albrecht Division of Infectious Diseases buy 1.5mg exelon free shipping, University of South Carolina cheap exelon 3 mg with amex, Columbia buy 6 mg exelon free shipping, South Carolina, U. While diagnostic and therapeutic issues remain, disease in most cases is not threatening enough to warrant admission to the critical care unit. The term miliary was first introduced by John Jacobus Manget in 1700, when he likened the multiple small white nodules scattered over the surface of the lungs of affected patients to millet seeds (Fig. Affected patients are typically predisposed by a weakened immune system, most notably defects in cellular immunity, resulting in the unchecked lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Autopsy- and hospital-based case series, however, generally suffer from selection and allocation bias. In all large case series, a significant percentage of patients have no demonstrable high-risk condition for dissemination. Due to the delayed development of the cellular immune system, children under the age of three years are at highest risk for progressive disease (6). Reports from the early 1970s indicated a progressive shift of the epidemiology to adult populations (8,9). The increasing uses of modern radiologic and invasive diagnostic methods have also contributed to the demographic shift. Immunology Adequate containment of tubercle bacilli requires an intricate interplay of different components of the innate and the adaptive immune system. The “cytokine storm” can be quite dramatic and result in a clinical picture resembling gram-negative septic shock. These complicated cases are typically the patients encountered by critical care providers. At the chronic end of the spectrum, presentation with prolonged fever of unknown origin, anorexia, weight loss, lassitude, night sweats, and cough are frequent. In one series of 38 patients, the median duration of illness reported was two months (24). Rarely, especially among older people, apyrexial presentations with progressive wasting strongly mimicking a metastatic carcinoma are seen (25,26). Miliary Tuberculosis in Critical Care 423 Atypical presentations and the nonspecific symptomatology can delay the diagnosis and account for the fact that this diagnosis is frequently missed, even in the current era of improved diagnostics. Organ Manifestations At autopsy, organs with high blood flow, including lungs, spleen, liver, bone marrow, kidneys, and adrenals, are frequently affected. Respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain) are present in 30% to 70% of patients. Commonly reported symptoms include abdominal pain (diffuse or localizing to the right upper quadrant), nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Liver function tests are frequently abnormal and typically suggest a cholestatic pattern. Frank jaundice, ascites, cholecystitis (31), and pancreatitis (32) are rare, but elevations of alkaline phosphatase and transaminases were reported in 83% and 42% of patients in one series (33). The most typical skin lesions, termed “tuberculosis cutis miliaris disseminata” or “tuberculosis cutis acuta generalisata”, are described as small papules or vesiculopapules (37). Rarely lichenoid, macular, purpuric lesions, indurated ulcerating plaques, and subcutaneous abscesses have been reported (35,37). Adrenal gland involvement has been found in as many as 42% of autopsy-based case series (38). Even in autopsy series, cardiovascular involvement, with the exception of pericarditis, is distinctly rare. The problem is to consider the diagnosis in time and to initiate diagnostic work up and therapeutic interventions without delay, as the host is generally not able to control M. A typically normocytic, normochromic anemia is seen in approximately 50% of the patients. Most patients have a normal white blood cell count, but leukopenia and leukocytosis 424 Albrecht occur in an approximately equal minority of patients. Pancytopenia due to bone marrow infiltration or a hemophagocytic syndrome has been described. Hyponatremia, the most common biochemical abnormality, often indicates inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Hypercalcemia and polyclonal hypergamma- globulinemia have been reported in several cases. Bronchoalveolar lavage tends to reveal absolute and relative lymphocytosis, but mostly due to conflicting results no other useful markers have been identified. Miliary Tuberculosis in Critical Care 425 the onset of clinical symptoms (24,33,45,46). The initial nodular interstitial spread occurs without significant alveolar involvement. In order to be large enough to be appreciated on a plain chest radiograph, however, some spread to the adjacent alveoli will have to have occurred (47). Furthermore, while many studies report extraordinary high rates of classic radiologic findings; this usually is a self-fulfilling prophecy as the radiologic findings were often used as an inclusion criterion as well. Asymmetrical nodular pattern, coalescing nodules, mottled appearance, snowstorm appear- ance, ground-glass appearance, and air-space consolidation have been described (3). Conversely, other conditions that typically present with larger nodules such as alveolar hemorrhage, lymphangitic cancers, or inhalational diseases can appear as early small nodules. Approximately 5% of patients have additional findings that may provide additional clues to the diagnosis. Subtle miliary lesions are best appreciated in slightly underpenetrated films, but in many cases visualization requires a high index of suspicion and review with an experienced chest radiologist. Numerous small (1–3 mm) nodules, distributed throughout both lungs, are easily visualized. A recent review, however, came to the conclusion that “in the published reports, no systematic pattern of diagnostic approach could be identified and invasive diagnostic sampling appeared to be arbitrary and individualized, especially in the pediatric series” (3). While it is indeed difficult to generate evidence-based recommendations for testing, recent studies have helped establish several important testing paradigms (24,33). However, the probability of a positive smear increased with the number of sites sampled. Thus, when present, samples of sputum, gastric aspirate, urine, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, and ascites should all be rapidly examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Fluorochrome dye–based stains may be more sensitive than conventional Ziehl–Nielsen staining (52). It should be noted that neither of these traditional stains allows for distinction between tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria, but direct probes have been developed that allow for species detection in smear-positive samples (53). Cultures tend to be more sensitive, but the turnaround time of several weeks significantly diminishes their usefulness in the critical care setting. However, even if the results may not be available in time before treatment decisions have to be made, it is extremely important to procure tissue/fluids as positive cultures are prerequisite for later drug-susceptibility testing. All specimens should be inoculated into an automated radiometric detection system, preferably using lysis centrifugation techniques, which is both more rapid and more sensitive than standard techniques using solid medium for the isolation of M. These tests produce results within two to seven hours after sputum processing and are therefore of interest in critically ill patients. False-positive or false-negative results occur more frequently when technician proficiency is suboptimal. While sensitivity and specificity are somewhat depen- dent on pretest probability, all available tests perform better in smear-positive samples than in smear-negative patients. Molecular rapid tests have generally replaced adenosine deaminase and interferon- gamma-based tests that have mostly been evaluated in resource-limited settings with high pretest probabilities. In the two modern case series, granulomas were demonstrated in up to 100% of liver biopsies, 82% of bone marrow biopsies, and 72% of transbronchial biopsies (24,33). If biopsies were guided by clinical or laboratory abnormalities specific to Miliary Tuberculosis in Critical Care 427 the organ system being sampled, the yield was generally higher. Specific target amplification can be performed on fresh and even processed samples. Pulmonary function tests often show abnormalities, but no characteristic pattern have been identified that would increase the diagnostic yield of other studies. Differential Diagnosis The differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses with miliary chest X-Ray infiltrates is broad and includes infectious and noninfectious entities. Bacterial infections described in the literature include legionella infection, nocardiosis, pyogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, H.
For a number of children with impairments discount 6mg exelon fast delivery, the use of sweetened medication has led to an increase in dental caries (Fig generic 6mg exelon overnight delivery. Some children will be taking medication as dispersible tablets or in an effervescent form generic exelon 3mg on-line, some of which, with chronic use, may predispose to dental erosion. Months of eager anticipation are followed by disbelief, anger, denial, frustration, and guilt. Parents have to grieve for the normal child they will never have, before coming to terms with their new responsibilities. Parents continue to feel guilty; maybe their child has an impairment because of something they have done, or something they should not have done. This may take the form of easy to eat sweet foods, which are thought to be pleasurable and are welcomed by the child with a poor appetite, thus compounding the problem of poor eating. Poor eating habits resulting in oral disease need to be tackled together with the paediatrician and dietician, as well as the parents or caregivers. It is wise therefore to check the diet carefully before advocating the use of fluoride supplements for such children. Where dental caries is potentially a real problem and in the absence of any other form of systemic fluorides, then the daily fluoride supplement regimen of 0. Once the concentration of fluoride in the local water supply is known from the water company, fluoride supplements can be prescribed by the general dental practitioner if indicated, either as drops for the younger child or tablets for the preschool child. It is likely that some children with impairments will never cope with fluoride tablets and have to remain on drops. As long as the parent is given written instructions to overrule the prescribing schedule given for younger children on the label of the bottle, there is no reason why older children should not be prescribed fluoride drops. The dentist should also advise on the appropriate fluoride toothpaste to be used in conjunction with fluoride supplementation or water fluoridation. Each case should be considered individually taking into account the relative risks and benefits that may occur. Paramount is consideration of the risk of developing dental caries versus the potential for enamel opacities in the permanent dentition. As a guideline, if the risk of caries is minimal, and if the diet is reasonably well controlled and home oral care is generally good, then it is sensible to suggest the use of a pea-sized amount of toothpaste containing approximately 500-600 p. Older children, in the same situation should use a toothpaste containing between 1000 and 1500 p. In the child where the development of dental disease would pose a real hazard to their general health, and where home care in terms of oral hygiene and diet is poorly controlled, it is advisable to confer maximum protection by recommending the use of a toothpaste containing 1000-1500 p. Because of the inability of many disabled children to hold solutions in their mouths or to expectorate, fluoride mouthwashes are contraindicated; however, they can be used on a toothbrush (dipped) where toothpaste is not well tolerated, to mimic the amount of topical fluoride received from toothpaste. Key Points Fluoride advice: • supplements to give optimal caries protection; • fluoride mouthwash on a toothbrush instead of paste in cases of paste intolerance; • low caries risk: 500-600 p. Included in this general category of physical impairment are children with clefts of the lip and/or palate (Chapter 141148H ), where there may well be an associated syndrome in up to 19% of cases. This is a group of non-progressive neuromuscular disorders caused by brain damage, which can be pre-, peri-, or postnatal in origin, and is classified according to the type of motor defect: 1. There is the appearance of severe muscle stiffness and the planned movement of an affected limb results in a hypotonic tendon reflex, especially with rapid movements. Athetosis⎯uncontrolled, slow twisting, and writhing movements, which are frequent and involuntary and occur in over 16% of cases. For example, with the decrease in kernicterus (neonatal jaundice), there has been a fall in the athetoid form, but the spastic form, associated with prematurity, has increased. In addition, they may be disabled by other impairments such as convulsions, intellectual impairment, sensory disorders, emotional disorders, speech and communication defects, and a poorly developed swallowing and cough reflex. Although not confined to children with cerebral palsy, gastric reflux is relatively common (Fig. There may be an obvious aetiology, for example, a hiatus hernia, but quite often a cause for the erosion cannot be identified (Chapter 101152H ). Key Points Oral features in cerebral palsy: • gingival hyperplasia; • increased caries prevalence; • malocclusion; • dental trauma; • enamel hypoplasia; • heightened gag reflex; • dental erosion and abrasion (bruxism). Plentiful reassurance, efficient suction and skilled assistance are vital to success in these situations. Impaired ventilation may accompany scoliosis and becomes an even more important consideration if procedures involving a general anaesthetic are contemplated. Children who spend long periods in one position may be predisposed to pressure sores, therefore lengthy procedures in the dental chair without a break are best avoided. Patients can experience acute discomfort during tooth preparation or ultrasonic scaling (even when the affected teeth are distant from the operating site), merely from the cold produced by high volume aspiration. The use of a desensitizing agent like Duraphat fluoride varnish or fissure sealing the symptomatic surface can be helpful if a restoration is not indicated. Hypoplastic enamel does not have the same ordered prism structure as normal enamel and, despite acid etching, may not provide optimum retention for conventional resins. Some less severely disabled children will have little or no intellectual impairment but will have a degree of spasticity or rigidity. This may prevent them from co-operating fully with dental procedures, despite their willingness to do so, and they may be helped by nitrous oxide sedation (Chapter 41155H ). Most children require help with brushing until they are 7 years or older, but for the child with physical limitations this may be a permanent commitment on the part of carers. Limited or bizarre muscle movements prevent normal mouth clearing and food is often left impacted in the vault of the palate. This is readily removed with the end of a toothbrush handle or a spoon handle, but carers need to be aware of the potential for this, otherwise food residues may be left in the oral cavity for days. Powered toothbrushes may be helpful for a child with limited dexterity, not only because of the relative efficiency of cleaning but also because of the larger size of the handle of most of these brushes. When normal limb movement is impaired or absent and/or normal speech is impossible, the mouth assumes an even greater importance as a means of holding mouthsticks to grasp pens or to operate a variety of equipment. It is vital the dentition is maintained to the highest standard as the successful use of such mouthsticks is reliant on having a good occlusal table for balanced contact (Fig. Children with cerebral palsy, especially where there is accompanying intellectual impairment, will on occasion adopt a habit of self-mutilation by chewing soft tissues around the mouth (Fig. It is distressing for the parents as the child is obviously in pain from the ulcerated areas and may refuse all food and drink, but there is little they can do to break the habit. There are a number of solutions to the problem depending on the cause and the severity of the condition. In a child who is erupting primary teeth it may be possible to fit an occlusal splint, provided that sufficient teeth are available for retention. Fabrication of the splint may necessitate a short general anaesthetic for impression- taking. Alternatively, addition of glass ionomer cement to the occlusal surfaces of the primary molars, to open the occlusion and prevent the teeth contacting the soft tissues, may be successful. If only anterior primary teeth are present then composition, moulded over the offending tooth surfaces as a temporary splint, may break the habit and allow healing (Fig. If the problem is more severe and a splint is not feasible, it is sensible to extract the primary teeth involved. In the permanent dentition, rounding-off the pointed or sharp tooth surfaces and/or fitting a splint is usually successful. Ensuring that the child has plenty of fluids is of paramount importance as small, debilitated children rapidly become dehydrated. For some disabled children this can be excessive, although surgery to divert the submandibular flow more posteriorly may alleviate the problem. However, this is not always successful and carries the risk of increasing caries prevalence as a result of the greatly diminished salivary volume. The use of acrylic training plates that encourage the formation of an oral seal as well as promoting a more active swallowing mechanism so that saliva does not pool in an open mouth may be helpful (Fig. Concurrent work with speech and language therapists will help with the necessary therapy that is fundamental to the success of such treatment. Anecdotal case reports support the use of these plates, but few studies have been published that give objective data on their success. However, one relatively non-interventional method of reducing saliva flow is the use of hyoscine hydrobromide, a drug which blocks parasympathetic transmission to the salivary glands.
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