As such 75 mg plavix with visa, there may be difficulties encountered in trying to get patients to accept this route purchase plavix 75mg with mastercard. It can be imagined that patients may be more reluctant to use a buccal patch in comparison to buy plavix 75 mg online, for example, a transdermal patch, which has become a well-known and well-established dosage form. Commercial Novel approaches, such as the use of buccal adhesive patches for the systemic delivery of large molecular weight drugs, require a huge input of time, effort and money, and are also associated with a large amount of risk. These issues can contribute to significant delay in the development and marketing of a new delivery system and can also make these systems relatively expensive. In sublingual tablet form nitroglycerin is highly effective, usually relieving the pain within 2 min of dissolution. Sublingual tablets are composed of soluble excipients (lactose, mannitol, sucrose) to achieve fast dissolution and thus aid rapid onset of drug action. However, the time taken to dissolve can be variable and prolonged, particularly in the presence of mouth dryness. Furthermore, the tablets have stability 179 problems and extreme care must be taken to avoid their exposure to heat, light, moisture and inappropriate packing material, which leads to a requirement for the tablets to be discarded 8 weeks after opening. Lipid aerosol formulations of nitroglycerin are also available, which are far more stable than the tablets, with a prolonged (3-year) shelf life. Sprayed directly onto the tongue, they produce relief of anginal pain within 2 min with a duration of effect of up to 30 min. However, it has been shown that the use of different aerosol vehicles markedly influences the bioavailability of the drug, which obviously has important therapeutic implications. Fast-dissolving molded tablets consisting of drug and poly(ethyleneglycol) blends with a melting point around the body temperature have also been investigated for the delivery of nitroglycerin and progesterone. Recently, fast-dissolving tablets based on freeze-drying techniques have been developed and are described further below. Oral bioavailability is very low, due to extensive intestinal and hepatic firstpass metabolism. Furthermore, the oral route is impractical in patients with nausea and vestibular disturbance, who have been demonstrated to have impaired gastric emptying. Buccastem tablets are a form of prochlorperazine for buccal administration, containing 3 mg of prochlorperazine in a polysaccharide base. When placed in position the tablet softens over a period of a few minutes to form a gel which adheres to the gum and gradually releases the drug. Prochlorperazine fulfils the criteria for efficient transmucosal delivery; it is a highly lipid soluble base with a pKa of 8. Because first-pass metabolism is avoided, the bioavailability via the buccal route is much higher than via the oral route (Figure 7. By contrast, oral long-acting nitrates have a prolonged but slow onset of action, restricting their use to angina prophylaxis. Sustained release buccal nitroglycerin (Suscard Buccal) was developed to provide both a rapid onset and a prolonged effect, in a single formulation. On contact with the moist mucosa the outer layer of the tablet hydrates and swells, becoming gel-like in consistency. This has the dual effect of: • promoting firm adherence of the tablet to the mucosa; • causing the outer layer of the cellulose meshwork to rupture, immediately releasing some of the drug for absorption. Gradual erosion of the tablet matrix allows slow release of the entrapped active moiety. Release from this system has been shown to be linear throughout the period of tablet dissolution. The high porosity of the system means that it dissolves instantaneously on the tongue and does not require water to aid swallowing. A number of products are currently available which use the Zydis technology including Dimetapp Quick Dissolving Tablets, Feldene Melt and Pepdine. However, it is important to note that the system does not actually facilitate oral transmucosal delivery per se, rather it allows rapid release of the drug in the mouth. The drug is then washed down with the saliva for subsequent absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. The convenience and acceptability of a Zydis formulation make it particularly suitable for patients who find it difficult or inconvenient to swallow solid dosage forms. In trials, up to 90% of patients expressed a preference for taking the Zydis formulation compared with a conventional tablet. Important features for drug delivery associated with these novel buccal patches include: 7. Multi-directional release The type of patch allows release of the drug moiety to the underlying mucosa (and thus the systemic circulation) and also to the saliva bathing the oral cavity (Figure 7. Drug released into the saliva may also be absorbed systemically through the mucus membranes of the oral cavity and/or remain locally. However, disadvantages associated with this approach include: • the drug becomes substantially diluted in the saliva; • substantial loss of the drug may occur when the saliva is swallowed; 182 Figure 7. Unidirectional release In this type of system, drug loss to the saliva can be decreased by using an impermeable backing layer (Figure 7. An additional advantage of these systems is that the effect of additives can be restricted to the site of application. However, this approach also means that the drug moiety is confined to the site of application, thus the available absorption area is quite small. Furthermore, presence of a backing layer can also decrease the flexibility of the dosage form leading to increased patient discomfort and reduced patient compliance. Drug release rate can be controlled by the use of: Matrix or drug-in-adhesive systems The drug is distributed throughout a polymer matrix. Such a system can be relatively easy to manufacture, the simplest case being when the drug is dispersed directly in a blend composed of, for example, a mixture of poly(acrylic acid) and elastomeric compounds such as poly(isobutylene) and poly(isoprene). Reservoir systems The reservoir patch has a similar bioadhesive component but pharmaceutical formulations containing certain excipients, such as penetration enhancers and enzyme inhibitors, can be placed in the center of the design. Matrix and reservoir systems, and their drug release profiles (firstorder, and square-root time order, respectively), have been discussed in detail in Chapters 3 and 4. However, patch size must always be considered with respect to patient comfort and acceptability and must not be too large so that these factors are compromised. Thus the size of adhesive patches is generally in the range 2–5 cm , with 10–15 cm being2 2 the upper limit. The principal mechanism for bioadhesion of oral patches appears to be physical entanglement of the adhesive polymer of the patch in the mucus glycoprotein chains, with secondary (electrostatic, hydrogen, hydrophobic) chemical bonding playing a minor role. Adhesive polymers used in oral patches include poly(hydroxyethylcellulose), poly (hydroxypropylcellulose), poly(sodium carboxymethylcellulose), poly(acrylic acid), poly(methacrylic acid), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and poly (vinyl alcohol). The binding properties of a given polymer are affected by physicochemical properties such as its molecular weight, configuration, cross-linking density, charge and concentration. As well as initial tack properties, another important consideration is the duration of bioadhesion. The influence of viscosity on adhesion time depends on the type of polymer, for example poly(vinylpyrrolidone) affords an adhesion time which increases exponentially with viscosity grade. Poly(hydroxyethylcellulose) and poly(vinyl alcohol) also show increased adhesion times with increasing viscosity; however, the reverse is true for hydroxypropylcellulose. Regardless of the viscosity, increasing the amounts of polymer in the patch increases the adhesion time. Patches with backing layers that are permeable to water generally show shorter adhesion times than those with impermeable backing layers. This is due to the slower erosion of the hydrocolloid when one side of the patch is protected against water uptake. The limited surface area available for absorption often means that a2 penetration enhancer is necessary to ensure: • an effective dose can be delivered from a patch of reasonable size; • the range of transmucosal drug delivery candidates can be extended, for example, to include poorly absorbed moieties such as therapeutic peptides and proteins. Penetration enhancers are discussed extensively for the transdermal nasal route in Sections 8. Comparatively few penetration enhancers have been tested for buccal absorption enhancement; those which have been investigated include bile salts. In addition, the buccal delivery of insulin in rabbits has been shown to be increased from approximately 3–5% by co-administration of edetate (least effective), sodium dextransulfate, sodium methoxysalicylate, sodium deoxycholate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium taurocholate and Brij 35 (most effective); with Brij 35 increasing the bioavailability of insulin to 12% by this route. A smooth surface and good flexibility are prerequisites to prevent mechanical irritation or local discomfort. Adequate evaluation of patient acceptability and compliance of buccal patches should include a clinical examination to observe local tolerance, and the incidence and degree of irritation. Trials should also involve the use of questionnaires, in order to determine a subject assessment of such factors as: • overall comfort; • sensation (taste, movement, swelling); • pain (during wear, on removal); • whether the patch interferes with normal activities (talking, eating, drinking, sleeping).
On the ground of the fact generic 75 mg plavix amex, that humanitarian education is considered to be as the education cheap plavix 75 mg line, which forms individual culture discount 75 mg plavix overnight delivery, we think, that it would be purposeful to refer to the following most significant pedagogical terms of the students‘ cognitive activity: democratic relationships between the participants of educational process; professional orientation of the educational; interactive methods of education. In the modern transformation period of socio-economic development of Ukraine significantly enhanced requirements for quality education of future professionals who will work in the future development of our state. Solving this problem requires new approaches to the educational process and study conditions for its implementation. In light of this priority area of educational differentiation is education, which is necessary for high -quality mastering educational material, increased cognitive activity, exercise self- control, improvement of intellectual, practical and communicative abilities of the future professionals. In the context of the research problem important to emphasize that disclosure of the concept of "differentiation" requires scientific definition of "differentiation". Definition of different approaches to the interpretation of the concept of "differentiation" engaged in such scholars (S. Logical-semantic analysis of the concept of "differentiation" was done by studying articles, dictionaries and encyclopedias. The word "differentiation" is derived from the Latin ―differentia‖, which means the difference, contrast. The notion of differentiation is defined thus: 1) separation section, a separation into different parts, forms, meetings; 2) the emergence of a body (or its site) in the development of morphological and functional differences. It is important to emphasize that education is the principle of unity and differentiation. Most important in the functioning of this principle - is to ensure simultaneous action of these two educational arm lever. Unity means not only access to education for all members of society, lack of social and national barriers, equal rights for graduates continuity of all types of 379 schools, but the common principles of the educational process, the unity of the programs and curricula across the country. Analysis psychologist and educational literature indicates that different authors approach the definition of "differentiated education" from different perspectives and in different ways: holistic process of preparing the individual for life in the light of its interests, abilities, aptitudes and capabilities, a process in which teacher and student advocate equal, willing and active participants (M. Ohurtsov); educational system in which there is a division of curricula and programs in areas (humanities, natural - mathematical) (I. Butuzov); ability to pick and choose the best way to swim students, given their age and individual characteristics and protecting their sense of human dignity (I. Synytsya); creation of optimal conditions to identify instincts, abilities and interests of each student, is focused on social influence in shaping the creative, intellectual and professional potential of society (V. Yeremeyeva); specially organized cognitive activity that takes into account individual differences of students, their starting opportunities and social experience aimed at optimal intellectual development of every person and involves structuring the content of educational material selection forms, techniques and methods according to typological characteristics of students (P. Formation of cognitive motivation is not possible without a strong motivation for educational and cognitive activity in higher educational establishment. Motivation determines professional orientation and students‘ activity during their educational and cognitive activity, characterizes the causes and mechanisms of their conscious behavior, and has impact on their professional self- determination and personal development. Motivation for students‘ educational and cognitive activity is variable and it is a continuous process that caused by personal students‘ orientation, activation of all psychological processes (thinking, perception, and understanding). Students with high level of motivation inherent activity and independence, persistence in achieving goals, confidence in a successful result, enjoying the process of their own professional development, and obtaining the necessary professional knowledge and skills. Students‘ educational and cognitive activity is the process of their interaction with the subjects of educational space of a higher educational establishment, so a student reaches deliberately goal, resulting from the emergence of the need to acquire professional knowledge. Motivation for educational and cognitive activity is an indicator of student‘s individual achievements, which is characterized by complex of emotional and volitional processes, determination of grounds on getting chosen specialty and perspectives of self-fulfillment as a specialist. Creating of positive educational motivation is the process of formation and consolidation of positive incentives to educational and cognitive activity in future trainers. The basic meaning of educational and cognitive activity is the changes in intellectual, moral, and personal development. Thus, need to learn and to know the features of future professional activity is the base of students‘ desire for knowledge. Students studying in higher educational establishment seek not only knowledge, but also after graduation to become competitive specialists useful to society. The quality of training of modern specialist provided by the combination of basic and specialized knowledge with practical training. Today the model of training graduate students through the transferring of certain amount of knowledge loses its perspective. In the first place has come the development of personality, ability to independently acquire certain skills and the ability to self-improvement. Rationale features the use of innovative forms and methods of training future teachers in terms of graduate school. Psycho-pedagogical training graduate students to professional teaching activities carried out at the department of pedagogy and psychology in the our university include: mastering innovative forms, methods and organizing means of the educational process in higher education. Mastery of educational technology, awareness of the importance of scientific knowledge gained in the theoretical training. Among the innovative forms and methods of practical training teachers use such teaching aids as active and interactive methods (discussion, study groups, training, "brain" storm, case method, imitation exercises, a "round table", etc. In the process of teaching graduate students provided a harmonious combination of different forms of work: lectures, practical, independent, varieties consultations. The results of graduate teaching practice are report in individual plans, where are show methodological development, including interactive methods, inverted training and other. Future teachers demonstrate modern methods during performances using multimedia presentations designed lectures. Introduction of innovative forms and methods allows graduate students to experience ourselves as professional; leaving future teachers can effectively evaluate teaching personal inclinations. Innovative approach introduced with use different educational technology in the psycho-pedagogical training of graduate students affect not only the formation of motivational and theoretical readiness, but practical necessary training of future teachers for pedagogical practice. Vocational training is one of pharmaceutical regulators and indicators of social development, because actually creates and maintains the viability doctrine of society. Given the current trends continuing professional development, the basic provisions of European integration, the development of modern information technology and the principles of distance education is particularly topical application of new information technologies, including distance learning approaches in training. But in the distance learning there are a number of disadvantages which significantly impair quality of training (lack of personal contact between student and teacher, the impossibility of practicing skills by listener, problem with authentication etc. Teachers of postgraduate educations institutions are not yet fully prepared for the introduction of this training form, because by traditional technologies the teacher has role of mentor and leader, and in distance education it should to be a coach and consultant. To compensate these disadvantages it needs to harmoniously combine distance with traditional learning. The special features of distance education include its interactive character, necessity of clear planning, intensive discussions and participation of students in adjusting the structure, content and effectiveness of the course. The distance learning phase in course represents not just a certain amount of information, and a complete process that involves the individual search for new knowledge, exchange of letters with the teacher and those who learns, recourse to electronic periodicals, multimedia application forms. Systematic monitoring carried out in the form operative feedback, automatic and deferred control. Analyzing during the study advantages and disadvantages of traditional full-time and distance learning we can note that it is a harmonious combination of these forms is the condition for the effectiveness of training, which will use the strengths and advantages of distance learning technologies. During theoretical and practical study on the use of distance learning at the courses for pharmaceutical professionals, we have summarized the scientific approaches to defining the essence and the basic concepts of distance learning. We compared the didactic principles on which based full-time and distance learning, certain advantages and disadvantages of each form of education and their comparison; the content, forms and methods of using distance learning; marked 383 features using distance learning. It was developed the model of using the distance learning in the system of postgraduate education pharmaceutical specialists, which was held by a series of thematic advanced training in pharmacy; investigated the efficiency of distance learning in the system of postgraduate education of pharmaceutical experts. The possibility of successful professional activity specialist pharmaceutical profile depends on vocational training in educational institutions, on its content and pedagogical techniques used, and the organization which depends on the understanding level of the objectives, content, structure and nature of the profession. Great attention was paid to the topic and load distribution on the distance and full-time stages of study. In the lecture materials that were made at the remote stage of training for self-study, were included in the results of recent national and international research on effective and safe use of medicines from the perspective of personalized medicine. Analysis of the final test in the experimental group (which using distance learning) showed that ―excellent‖ mark on exam has had 78% of learners, ―well‖ mark – 22%. This result suggests that these benefits of distance learning as the possibility of repeated revision of lecture materials, sufficient time for self-training, learning material in handy for students time combined with the benefits of full-time training (practicing skills under the guidance of experienced teachers, etc. So, given the current trend of continuous professional development in pharmaceutical education today is a very important application of new information technologies and distance learning approaches in training professionals of pharmaceutical profile. The use of distance learning at the courses of pharmaceutical professionals has a number of useful features, provides a flexible environment for education, can take advantage of distance learning is relevant and promising direction of development of modern science. Under professional competence we should understood competence that demonstrates possession of knowledge, skills, professionally important qualities necessary for professional work.
Adolescents may access care in a variety of settings purchase plavix 75 mg visa, including paediatric and antenatal care clinics safe plavix 75mg, as well as adult clinics buy plavix 75 mg visa. Since few health systems provide adolescent-specific services it can be challenging for adolescents to access health care and maintain adherence to treatment regimens. In general, in these guidelines, clinical and general care recommendations for adults apply to adolescents. Where guidance for adolescents is addressed in recommendations for children, this is clearly indicated. There are four specific recommendations on testing and counselling taken from additional recent adolescent-specific guidance. Most-at-risk populations include men who have sex with men, transgender people, people who inject drugs and sex workers. The use of ArT in key populations should follow the same general principles and recommendations as for adults. The location of the most important guidance and recommendations specific to key populations is summarized in Table 4. The topics Guidance for listed here are indicative of some of the specifc issues programme managers Socioeconomic, policy and legal context Section 10. The people tested who are not infected should be linked to appropriate prevention services, such as voluntary male medical circumcision in the priority countries in sub-Saharan Africa, or harm reduction services for those who use drugs, and encouraged to retest at a later time. Strategies should be able to reach the people who are most vulnerable, most-at-risk and marginalized (Box 5. Quality assurance systems should be put in place to minimize false-positive and false-negative results. Failure to do this will lead to people being given incorrect test results, with potential serious adverse long-term consequences. Mandatory or coerced testing is never appropriate, whether that coercion comes from a health care provider or from a partner or family member. Although confdentiality should be respected, it should not be allowed to reinforce secrecy, stigma or shame. Counsellors should raise, among other issues, whom else the person may wish to inform and how they would like this to be done. Shared confdentiality with a partner or family members and trusted others and with health care providers is often highly benefcial. Quality assurance mechanisms and supportive supervision and mentoring systems should be in place to ensure the provision of high-quality counselling. Quality assurance may include both internal and external measures and should include support from the national reference laboratory as needed. Connections to prevention, care and treatment services should include the provision of effective referral to appropriate follow-up services as indicated, including long- term prevention and treatment support. Quality assurance of both testing and counselling is essential in all approaches used. Rationale and supporting evidence The recommendations are based on evidence and on operational and programmatic considerations. The systematic review identified four randomized studies (3,4) and eight observational studies (5–10) comparing community-based testing to facility-based testing in generalized epidemics (Web Annex: www. However, the frequency of positive test results was higher in health facility–based testing than in many community settings. An additional review covering key populations identified three studies comparing community-based testing to facility-based testing in key populations (11–13). Fifteen studies examined potential negative consequences of community-based testing (10,14–25). These studies discussed both the clients’ positive testing experiences and their fears. The studies New did not demonstrate that community-based approaches either reduced stigma or fear or increased them or other harms. The few studies comparing the cost per person tested using facility- and community-based testing found that the cost per person tested was similar in both approaches (Web Annex: www. Community-based testing should be implemented in addition to provider-initiated testing and counselling. Multiple approaches are needed, which may include stand- alone sites, home-based testing, mobile outreach (including in workplaces, schools, universities, special testing campaigns and events) and multi-disease campaigns tailored to epidemiological and social contexts. It can identify seroconcordant positive couples who can be linked to treatment and receive treatment adherence support. Services should be offered to married and cohabiting couples, premarital couples, polygamous unions and any other partnerships. Health providers must be aware of the potential for intimate partner–based violence and should support individuals when they do not want to test with their partners. Existing recommendations (2) Generalized epidemics Provider-initiated testing and counselling is recommended for women as a routine component of the package of care in all antenatal, childbirth, postpartum and paediatric care settings. Low-level and concentrated epidemics Provider-initiated testing and counselling should be considered for pregnant women. While early testing is increasing, there are ongoing challenges of access, return of results and initiation of early treatment in infants testing positive. Point-of-care virological testing, in development, is expected to greatly improve early diagnosis and treatment. Final diagnosis (or definitive diagnosis) at the end of the risk period for mother- to-child transmission (breastfeeding period) should be ensured. For infants with an initial positive virological test result, it is strongly recommended that ArT be started without delay and, at the same time, a second specimen be collected to confrm the initial positive virological test result. Immediate initiation of ArT saves lives and should not be delayed while waiting for the results of the confrmatory test (strong recommendation, high-quality evidence). For the most part, published evidence for adolescent-specifc recommendations is lacking; for these guidelines, considerable weight is given to expert opinion, values and preferences of adolescents and their health care providers, and to the feld experience of practitioners. Within the health sector, post-exposure prophylaxis should be provided as part of a comprehensive package of universal precautions that reduces the exposure of personnel to infectious hazards at work. A recent recommendation (39) relates specifically to post-exposure prophylaxis in the case of sexual assault. Source for recommendation Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: clinical and policy guidelines. Combining approaches may also result in synergies that have greater impact than single interventions alone. Male condoms reduce heterosexual transmission by at least 80% and offer 64% protection in anal sex among men who have sex with men (40), if used consistently and correctly. Fewer data are available for the effcacy of female condoms, but evidence suggests they can have a similar prevention effect (41). Opioid substitution therapy also provides adherence support to people on ArT (43-44). Behavioural interventions reduce the frequency of potential transmission events, including the following. Structural and supportive interventions affect access to, uptake of and adherence to behavioural and biomedical interventions. However, several systematic reviews and observational studies suggest that several good practices can improve linkage to care (2–4). Enrolment in care provides an opportunity for close clinical and laboratory monitoring and early assessment of eligibility for ArT and timely initiation, and aims to minimize loss to follow-up. A general care package will vary according to the epidemic type, populations affected and prevalence of coinfections, other comorbidities and health conditions. Initiation of ArT should always consider nutritional status, any comorbidities and potentially interacting medications for possible contraindications or dose adjustment. The choice to accept or decline ArT ultimately lies with the individual person or his or her caretaker, and if they choose to defer initiation, ArT can be offered again at subsequent visits. If there are mental health, substance use or other problems that are major barriers to adherence, appropriate support should be provided, and readiness to initiate ArT should be reassessed at regular intervals. A wide range of patient information materials as well as community and peer support can help the person’s readiness and decision to start therapy.
U. Zuben. Lake Forest Graduate School of Management.
Richmond Rascals. 12 Richmond Hill. Richmond-Upon-Thames. TW10 6QX tel: 020 8948 2250