All of these codes relate to consumers’ cognitive processes in some ways buy levitra plus 400mg otc, including 150 their attributions of symptom exacerbation and relief purchase 400mg levitra plus mastercard, their self-awareness (and in some cases 400mg levitra plus fast delivery, interpretations of the behaviours and mental health statuses of others), increased knowledge about their illness and medication partly as a result of their experiences, memory deficits and behavioural strategies to overcome deficits. Consistent with previous findings, insight was presented in interviewees’ talk as a multi-faceted construct which operates at various levels. The types of insight that consumers identified were important to their medication adherence related to knowledge about their illness symptoms, its chronicity, the effect of medication on symptoms, and the rationale for maintenance medication. Findings from the present study suggest that consumers may gain insight as a result of learning from their past experiences. Indeed, when asked about strategies to improve adherence, many interviewees stated that they reflected on past experiences, from various periods in their lives, including pre-illness onset, pre- medication treatment and times when they became non-adherent and experienced negative repercussions as a result. Such findings could be seen to contradict research which frequently indicates that the best predictor of future adherence is past and present adherence, and has significant ramifications for potential interventions. In addition to referring to past experiences to reinforce adherence, extracts related to self-medication could be seen to suggest that with experience, consumers can also gain knowledge about their illnesses, optimum medication dosages and non-harmful durations of non-adherence. Having gained such knowledge, consumers may then start to modify their medication regimens themselves, tailoring it to their individual circumstances. Although sometimes done in collaboration with prescribers, this behaviour could represent consumers exercising control over their treatment. Occasionally, interviewees reported that they self- 151 medicated with non-prescription substances in an attempt to alleviate symptoms. It was suggested that despite the established risks, self- medication with substances may be considered preferable by some consumers as they may be more tolerable in terms of side effects. Finally, forgetfulness was also raised as an influence on adherence in the present study. Strategies to overcome forgetfulness provided by interviewees included incorporation of medication taking into consumers’ daily lives and reliance on social supports for prompting. Predominantly, however, consumers talked about the side effects associated with medication and the efficacy of medication in treating symptoms. Specifically, the presence or absence of side effects, side effect severity and the effectiveness (or inefficacy) of medication in treating illness symptoms were commonly expressed as important influences on interviewees’ attitudes towards medication and their choices to take, request to change, reduce dosage or discontinue use of their antipsychotic medication. It became apparent during the coding of interview data that side effects and the efficacy of medication were often considered collectively, or weighed against each other, in interviewees’ talk. This is consistent with the findings from previous qualitative research (Carrick et al. Notably, consumers’ evaluations of side effects as tolerable or intolerable were generally influenced by the impact side effects exerted on their daily lives. For example, consumers frequently reported non-adherence when side effects interfered with their capacity to perform certain roles, such as parenting or employment, or to engage in leisure activities. Similarly, whilst medication efficacy was occasionally evaluated concretely, in terms of its impact on symptoms, interviewees also talked about the impact that the medication had on their lives and their appearances to others. Interviewees’ evaluations of their medications as effective or ineffective in addressing 153 symptoms also frequently related to how medication improved, normalised or detracted from their mental health status and their lives. Consumers commonly deployed dichotomies in their talk related to side effects and the efficacy of medication, such as sane/insane and normal/abnormal, to illustrate the drastic impact that side effects or symptom alleviation exerted on them and their lives. For example, side effects were deemed intolerable and linked to non-adherence when they were related to preventing consumers’ “normal” undertakings. Additionally, when asked what motivated their adherence, consumers often referred to medication’s efficacy in treating their symptoms, which was associated with perceptions of themselves as “sane” and/or their lives as “normal”. Dichotomies were used less in talk related to the influence of the inefficacy of medication on non-adherence. The data analysis for the medication-related factors category begins with the route of administration of medication code. These relatively short codes are followed by the side effects of medication code, which encompasses the associated impact of side effects on consumers’ lives, which typically represented risk factors for non-adherence. The efficacy of medication code is then presented, which 154 incorporates a sub-code encompassing extracts that relate to medication’s inefficacy another sub-code that relates to weighing up of side effects and medication effectiveness code is then presented, highlighting the propensity of interviewees to consider these variables collectively in their adherence- related talk. Depot injections release antipsychotic medications in a consistent way, over a long period of time and are often prescribed for consumers with adherence difficulties and who are on community treatment orders, as the reduction in frequency of dosing is considered advantageous in terms of adherence. In a study assessing adherence to typical, depot antipsychotic medications, Heyscue et al. The higher rates of adherence amongst consumers on depot medication regimens (Heyscue et al. Despite these statistics, treatment guidelines generally do not support depot antipsychotic medication as a first-line treatment for consumers (McGorry, 1992). A relatively high proportion (20% equivalent to five in total) of participants in the present study were prescribed depot antipsychotic medications. This may have been because some recruitment occurred at medication clinics, where depot medications are administered. Although not a common code, consistent with the literature, some interviewees indicated 155 that a depot medication route helped them to overcome the inconveniences associated with taking oral antipsychotic medications and minimised the potential for unintentional non-adherence (i. In the following extract, Cassie compares medication in tablet form, required to be taken daily, with long-acting depot medication: Cassie, 4/2/09 C: Um, it’s annoying, I’ve gotta make sure sometimes um, like if I’m going, I’ve gotta have some in my handbag if I’m going out in case we don’t come home or something like that, so I’ve got some, you know, if my husband drinks too much or if I drink too much and we stay there or something I’ve gotta have medication on me. Above, Cassie emphasises the added responsibilities for consumers on oral, regular doses of antipsychotic medication. Specifically, she states that she is required to take her medication with her when she leaves the house in case, for example, she or her husband drinks too much” and are away from home longer than expected, thus, medication is not instantly accessible. Cassie could be seen to imply that the onus of constantly having to be mindful of medication is inconvenient through her expression of annoyance. She contrasts having to take her medication everywhere she goes with decreased “worry” associated with “injections” of antipsychotic medication. Although not specified, it could be assumed that Cassie associates depot antipsychotic medications with comparatively less “worry” because they are long-acting and, therefore, there are decreased dosages for consumers. Although Cassie 156 does not associate the route of medication with adherence, the added responsibility of having access to medication all the time could feasibly account for some unintentional non-adherence or to negative perceptions of medication, which could indirectly relate to non-adherence. In the next extract, in the context of being asked directly about how adherence could be improved in consumers, Steve highlights benefits associated with long-acting depot forms of medication: Steve, 4/2/09 L: That’s good, yeah. S: Like, if they had more tablets in injections, so they they’d only have to go to John St. S: Yeah it’s longer lasting and they don’t have to remember to take medication, it’s already in their system. Specifically, Steve posits that more medications should become available in “injections” to assist with adherence. Like in the previous extract, Steve associates depot antipsychotic medication with less “worry” than oral forms. Steve minimizes the inconvenience associated with depot antipsychotic medications by stating that consumers “only have to go to [medication clinic] once a week or once a fortnight”. He constructs depot administration as having the propensity to relieve consumers of the burden of 157 having to “remember to take medication”, thus unintentional non-adherence as a result of forgetfulness could be overcome. It must be acknowledged, however, that interviewees infrequently spontaneously talked about medication packs; when they spoke about them, it was in response to a question in the interview. Some interviewees indicated that when they forgot to take their medications in the past, their medication packs or dosette boxes enabled them to overcome this potential obstacle to adherence or to act promptly to address non-adherence. In the following extract, Ross, who reported adherence difficulties in the past, highlights how using dosette boxes enables him to monitor his adherence: Ross, 14/08/08 L: So do you find the dosettes help? When asked about the utility of dosette boxes, Ross describes them positively (“they’re good”) and evaluates storing medication in them as “better” and “easier” than keeping medication in its original packaging (which he describes as “harder”) in terms of monitoring adherence. With prompting, Ross concurs that monitoring medication is particularly difficult for consumers like himself, who are on complex medication regimens, thus, it could be predicted that storing medication in dosette boxes may be particularly useful in such cases. He states that dosettes assist him to “remember” by facilitating the development of a medication-taking “routine”. Ross also states that by checking his dosette box regularly, he becomes aware of missed dosages (“you’ll know if you’ve taken them or you haven’t taken them”). Knowledge of skipped dosages may enable consumers to intervene appropriately and potentially restore adherence. It could also raise consumers’ awareness of potential symptom fluctuations and increased risk of relapse. In the extracts below, Katherine and Margaret also highlight the 159 benefits of dosette boxes and medication packs enabling consumers to monitor their adherence: Katherine, 5/2/09 L: Where do you keep your medication? K: I keep it in a dosette actually because when I get unwell, I actually don’t remember if I’ve taken it or not. So when your symptoms get worse, it’s like, probably because you’re paying attention to, you know, some of the stuff that you’re hearing or seeing and that sort of thing, you don’t really think about your medication.
Lancet : () Letter to Edward Jenner about his new vaccine for smallpox The scientiﬁc truth may be put quite brieﬂy; eat The stomach is the distinguishing part between an moderately buy levitra plus 400 mg free shipping, having an ordinary mixed diet discount 400mg levitra plus, and animal and a vegetable; for we do not know any don’t worry generic levitra plus 400 mg fast delivery. V From inability to let well alone; from too much zeal for the new and contempt for what is The operation is a silent confession of the old; from putting knowledge before wisdom, surgeon’s inadequacy. Without this knowledge a man than the endurance of the same, Good Lord, cannot be a surgeon. Attributed British Medical Journal : () · Sir Julian Huxley – Healthy people need no bureaucratic interference British biologist and author to mate, give birth, share the human condition and die. Medical Nemesis Attributed To give the lower class greater access to health Evolution is the most powerful and the most care would only equalize the delivery of comprehensive idea that has ever arisen on Earth. British biologist Limits to Medicine () I asserted – and I repeat – that a man has no reason to be ashamed of having an ape for his Indian proverbs grandfather. Speech, June () replying to Bishop Samuel Physicians live by rich patients, ofﬁcials by Wilberforce at the Association for the Advancement of Science in Oxford, June () unlucky princes, princes by litigants, and clever men by fools. It is an error to imagine that evolution signiﬁes a constant tendency to increased perfection. Indian (Kashmiri) proverb Social Diseases and Worse Remedies ‘The Struggle for Existence in Human Society’ Until a physician has killed one or two he is not a physician. If he is to allowed to let his children go unvaccinated, he might as well be allowed to leave Indian (Tamil) proverbs strychnine lozenges about in the way of mine. Method and Results ‘Administrative Nihilism’ Domestic medicine is preferable to that of a physician. Hospitality and medicine must be conﬁned to Darwiniana ‘The Coming of Age of the Origin of Species’ three days. Many people think they have religion when they Ariel ‘The Fabric and Creation of a Dream’ are troubled with dyspepsia. Ingle – Norwegian playwright Science cannot be equated to measurement, Oh, one soon makes friends with invalids; and I although many contemporary scientists behave need so much to have someone to live for. Austrian-born social philosopher and activist Principles of Research in Biology and Medicine Ch. Werner Jaeger – The silliest charm gives more comfort to German classical scholar thousands in sorrow and pain In classical times, more than at any other period Than they will ever get from the knowledge that until a few decades ago, the doctor was more proves it foolish and vain. Isidore of Seville – A custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Spanish ecclesiastic nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs. A Counterblast to Tobacco The physician ought to know literature, to be able to understand or to explain what he reads. Pierre Marie Janet – If the patient dies, it is the doctor who has killed French professor of psychology, Sorbonne, Paris him, and if he gets well, it is the saints who have If a patient is poor he is committed to a public cured him. Japanese proverbs Boston Medical Quarterly : () Better go without medicine than call in an In teaching the medical student the primary unskilful physician. First the man takes a drink, then the drink takes a drink, then the drink takes the man. Third book of Criticism Mary Corinna Puttnam Jacobi – DeForest Clinton Jarvis –? Garrison, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine October, – () Karl Jaspers – German philosopher The magnetic needle of professional rectitude should, in spite of occasional deviations, always The anxiety affects the body. Academy of Medicine October, – () Die geistige Situation der Zeit Pt , Ch. Letter to Philip Turpin, July () Sir William Jenner – If the body be feeble, the mind will not be English physician and pathologist strong. British humorist Letter to Maria Cosway, October () We drink one another’s health and spoil our own. Idleness begets ennui, ennui the hypochondriac, Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow, ‘On Eating and Drinking’ and that a diseased body. No laborious person was Love is like the measles, we all have to go ever yet hysterical. Letter to Martha Jefferson, March () Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow, ‘On Being in Love’ The most uninformed mind with a healthy body, I never read a patent medicine advertisement is happier than the wisest valetudinarian. Randolph Jr, July () I am suffering from the particular disease Health is the ﬁrst requisite after morality. Future William Stanley Jevons – nations will know by history only that the English economist and logician loathsome smallpox has existed and by you has So-called original research is now regarded as a been extirpated. God could not be everywhere and therefore he Letter to Dr Caspar Wistar, June () made mothers. John of Arderne – Letter to Dr Caspar Wistar, June () English surgeon and father of colorectal surgery The adventurous physician goes on, and A bubo is a tumour developing within the substitutes presumption for knowledge. I wish to see this beverage (beer) become common Treatises of Fistula-in-ano D’Arcy Power. Oxford University instead of the whiskey which kills one-third of our Press () citizens and ruins their families. Bodily decay is gloomy in prospect, but of all Treatises of Fistula-in-ano D’Arcy Power. Oxford University human contemplations the most abhorrent is Press, Oxford () body without mind. Letter to John Adams, August () Sir Elton John – We never repent of having eaten too little. British rock singer Letter to Thomas Jefferson Smith, February () There’s nothing wrong with going to bed with somebody of your own sex. People should be very Edward Jenner – free with sex – they should draw the line at goats. English country physician Attributed The deviation of man from the state in which he Samuel Johnson – was originally placed by nature seems to have English lexicographer and writer proved to him a proliﬁc source of disease. An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, We palliate what we cannot cure. Jung – has been made by which a single malady is more Austrian psychoanalyst easily cured. Attributed Those who do not feel pain seldom think that it is The separation of psychology from the premises of felt. The miseries Factors Determining Human Behaviour of poverty, sickness, of captivity, would, without Every form of addiction is bad, no matter whether this comfort, be insupportable the narcotic be alcohol or morphine or idealism. Jones – Professor of Surgery, Aberdeen, Scotland Knowledge of a woman whose back aches, and the inside of her thighs are painful. Say to her, it is It is the nature of emergency surgery that the falling of the womb. Ben Jonson – Obstetrics and Gynecology : () English dramatist Immanuel Kant – When men a dangerous disease did scape, German Philosopher Of old, they gave a cock to Aesculape. Physicians think they do a lot for a patient when Epigrammes they give his disease a name. Attributed Attributed But it is wisdom that has the merit of selecting from among the innumerable problems which Isaac Judaeus c. Throughout history, until just a few years ago, the Attributed human sexual response was seen monistically, as a single event that passed from lust to excitement D. Ballière Tindall, London () Diseases of the heart and circulation predominate John Keats – as causes of morbidity and death in the developed English poet parts of the world, and are becoming of increasing importance in developing countries. There are only two classes of mankind in the Acceptance speech, Democratic National Convention, Los world—doctors and patients. Angeles, July () A Doctor’s Work, address to medical students at London’s No costs have increased more rapidly in the last Middlesex Hospital, October () decade than the cost of medical care. The world has long ago decided that you (doctors) Address on the th Anniversary of the Social Security have no working hours that anybody is bound to Act, August () respect. Its A Doctor’s Work, address to medical students at London’s strength can be no greater than the health and Middlesex Hospital, October () vitality of its population. Preventable sickness, Those people who would limit, and cripple, and disability and physical or mental incapacity hamper research because they fear research may are matters of both individual and national be accompanied by a little pain and suffering. A Doctor’s Work, address to medical students at London’s Message to Congress on a Health Program, February Middlesex Hospital, October () () We are very slightly changed We cannot afford to postpone any longer a From the semi-apes who ranged reversal in our approach to mental afﬂiction.
Matching symptoms and therapies Anxiety symptoms appear in three different spheres generic levitra plus 400 mg fast delivery, as follows (see the ear- lier section “Recognizing the Symptoms of Anxiety” for more details on these symptoms): ✓ Thinking symptoms: The thoughts that run through your mind ✓ Behaving symptoms: The things you do in response to anxiety ✓ Feeling symptoms: How your body reacts to anxiety Treatment corresponds to each of these three areas cheap levitra plus 400mg fast delivery, as we discuss in the fol- lowing three sections generic levitra plus 400mg without prescription. Thinking therapies One of the most effective treatments for a wide range of emotional problems, known as cognitive therapy, deals with the way you think about, perceive, and interpret everything that’s important to you, including ✓ Your views about yourself ✓ The events that happen to you in life ✓ Your future 16 Part I: Detecting and Exposing Anxiety Ten dubious duds This book is designed to give you ideas on how ✓ Drinking or illegal drugs: Substances may to beat anxiety. Beware the following things, relieve anxiety for a short while, but they which make anxiety worse: actually increase anxiety in the long run. For example, if hard and feel anxious about your progress, you’re afraid of driving on a freeway and you’re just going to make things worse. But the ✓ Hoping for miracles: Hope is good — mira- effects are short-lived, and reassurance cles do happen — but it’s not a good idea to can actually make anxiety worse. But the strategies and therapies described ✓ Psychoanalysis: This approach to therapy in this book have proven to be more reliable works for some problems, but it hasn’t col- and effective in the long run. When people feel unusually anxious and worried, they almost inevitably dis- tort the way they think about these things. In the following example, Luann has both physical symptoms and cognitive symptoms of anxiety. She fantasizes that she will fail each and every test she takes and that eventually, the college will dis- miss her. The cognitive approach her therapist uses helps her capture the nega- tive predictions and catastrophic outcomes that run through her mind. It then guides her to search for evidence about her true performance and a more realistic appraisal of the chances of her actually failing. As simple as this approach sounds, hundreds of studies have found that it works well to reduce anxiety. Chapter 1: Analyzing and Attacking Anxiety 17 Behaving therapies Another highly effective type of therapy is known as behavior therapy. As the name suggests, this approach deals with actions you can take and behav- iors you can incorporate to alleviate your anxiety. Some actions are fairly straightforward, like getting more exercise and sleep and managing your responsibilities. On the other hand, one type of action that targets anxiety and can feel a little scary is exposure — breaking your fears down into small steps and facing them one at a time. Some people, with the advice of their doctor, choose to take medications for their anxiety. If you’re considering that option, be sure to see Chapter 9 to help you make an informed decision. Feeling therapies — soothing the inner storm Anxiety sets off a storm of distressing physical symptoms, such as a racing heartbeat, upset stomach, muscle tension, sweating, dizziness, and so on. We have a variety of suggestions, including breathing and relaxation techniques, for helping quell this turmoil. You may choose to make changes in your life- style (see Chapter 10), give the relaxation strategies we cover in Chapters 11 and 12 a try, or employ mindfulness, an approach that teaches you to con- nect with present moment experiences (see Chapter 13). Choosing where to start We organize this book so you can start anywhere you want, but you may wonder whether one set of strategies would work better for you than another. Although we can’t predict with certainty what will work best for you, we do have a guide for helping you choose the approach that may feel most compatible for your initial efforts. On the other hand, if you just want to read the book from front to back, that’s fine, too. If you check off more items in one category than the others, you may consider start- ing with the part of this book that applies to it. For example, Chapters 5, 6, and 7 are designed especially for thinkers and present the thinking therapies, also known as cognitive therapy; Chapter 8 is aimed at doers and provides the essentials of behavior therapy. If you check an equal number of items in two or more catego- ries, ask yourself which one seems most like you and start there. Finding the right help We suppose it’s not too presumptuous to assume that because you’re read- ing this book, you or someone you know suffers from anxiety. A number of studies support the idea that people can deal with important, difficult problems without seeking the services of a professional. Chapter 1: Analyzing and Attacking Anxiety 19 Then again, sometimes self-help efforts fall short. Chapter 23 provides ten critical signs that indicate a likely need for professional help. If you do need professional consultation, many qualified therapists will work with you on the ideas contained in this book. That’s because most mental- health professionals will appreciate the comprehensive nature of the material and the fact that most of the strategies are based on well-proven methods. If research has yet to support the value of a particular approach, we take care to let you know that. We happen to think you’re much better off sticking with strategies known to work and avoiding those that don’t. In Chapters 18, 19, and 20, we discuss how to help a child or an adult loved one who has anxiety. If you’re working with a friend or family member, you both may want to read Part V, and possibly more, of this book. Sometimes, friends and family can help those who are also working with a professional and making their own efforts. Whichever sources, techniques, or strategies you select, overcoming anxiety will be one of the most rewarding challenges that you ever undertake. The endeavor may scare you at first, and the going may start slow and have its ups and downs. But if you stick with it, we believe that you’ll find a way out of the quicksand of anxiety and onto the solid ground of serenity. For example, if you’re driving in a snowstorm and your car starts to spin out of control, feeling anxious makes sense. To get a feel for the difference between something as serious as an anxiety disorder and a normal reaction, read the following description and imagine ten minutes in the life of Tiffany. Her body suddenly jerks forward; she grips the sides of her seat and clenches her teeth to choke back a scream. She handed her ticket to the atten- dant and buckled herself into a roller coaster. Tiffany doesn’t have an anxiety disorder, she isn’t suffering a nervous breakdown, and she isn’t going crazy. As her story illustrates, the symptoms of anxiety can be ordinary reactions to life. In this chapter, we help you figure out whether you’re suffering from an anxi- ety disorder, everyday anxiety, or something else. Then we discuss some of the other emotional disorders that often accompany anxiety. Knowing When Anxiety Is a Help and When It’s a Hindrance Imagine a life with no anxiety at all. With no anxiety, when the guy in the car in front of you slams on the brakes, your response will be slower and you’ll crash. The total absence of anxiety may cause you to walk into a work presentation unprepared. Anxiety poses a problem for you when ✓ It lasts uncomfortably long or occurs too often. For example, if you have anxiety most days for more than a few weeks, you have reason for concern. Thus, if anxiety wakes you up at night, causes you to make mistakes at work, or keeps you from going where you want to go, it’s getting in the way. For example, if your body and mind feel like an avalanche is about to bury you but all you’re doing is taking a test for school, your anxiety has gone too far. Chapter 2: Examining Anxiety: What’s Normal, What’s Not 23 Presenting the Seven Types of Anxiety Anxiety comes in various forms. The word “anxious” is a derivative of the Latin word angere, meaning to strangle or choke.
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