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Treatment: Lin says people can treat symptoms with over-the-counter medications buy 2 mg detrol fast delivery, including antihistamines and nasal steroid sprays best detrol 1 mg, or prescription medication from a doctor cheap detrol 2mg on line. She cautions that during tree pollen season, windy sunny days may trigger symptoms because pollen will be swept up into the air. Avoidance: To avoid tree pollen, which along with mold is often responsible for spring allergies, Lin suggests staying indoors, or if you are outside, wearing a mask that can filter the pollen particles. However, Dr. Rachel Miller, director at the division of pediatric allergy, immunology and rheumatology at Columbia University Medical Center, said there are lots of factors at play - including tree species and precipitation levels (which tend to clear out airborne allergens). Nasal saline irrigation (a practice where salt water is poured into the nostrils), may have benefits in both adults and children in relieving the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and it is unlikely to be associated with adverse effects. It is best to take oral antihistamine medication before exposure, especially for seasonal allergic rhinitis. One way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to wear a respirator or mask when near potential allergens. 28 In several studies, over 40% of people having been diagnosed with nonallergic rhinitis were found to actually have local allergic rhinitis. The symptoms of local allergic rhinitis are the same as the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including symptoms in the eyes. So skin-prick and blood tests for allergy are negative, but there are IgE antibodies produced in the nose that react to a specific allergen Intradermal skin testing may also be negative. Allergic rhinitis may be seasonal or perennial. The characteristic symptoms of allergic rhinitis are: rhinorrhea (excess nasal secretion), itching , sneezing fits, and nasal congestion and obstruction. Allergic rhinitis is the type of allergy that affects the greatest number of people. 3 A number of medications may improve symptoms including nasal steroids , antihistamines such as diphenhydramine , cromolyn sodium , and leukotriene receptor antagonists such as montelukast 5 Medications are, however, not sufficient or are associated with side effects in many people. 4 The symptoms of allergies resemble those of the common cold ; however, they often last for more than two weeks and typically do not include a fever 3. 3 Many people with allergic rhinitis also have asthma , allergic conjunctivitis , or atopic dermatitis 2. People with hay fever - especially those who experience wheezing or coughing with their hay fever - may be at increased risk of epidemic thunderstorm asthma. Combined intranasal corticosteroid and antihistamine sprays are also useful for people with moderate to severe symptoms and offer the combined advantages of both medications. Some medications may help relieve the symptoms of hay fever. Identifying the allergen/s causing the symptoms is an important part of managing hay fever. Avoiding allergic triggers and taking appropriate treatments are the best ways to reduce the frequency of hay fever symptoms. Here are some tips to keep the effects of allergies and asthma at bay during pollen season: While all of those symptoms are certainly irritating, in children with a history of asthma , a much more serious effect of allergies can be an asthma attack This happens when the lining of the airways becomes inflamed, causing the surrounding muscles to constrict. Most kids get excited for the warm temperatures and sunshine, but not so much for the ensuing sniffles and watery eyes that come with springtime allergies. The basics of this story involve allergens (whatever assortment of pollen, mold and dander sets you off) and the immune system. If your hay fever flares in the spring, you could be allergic to trees such as birch, oak, alder, cedar, hazelnut, willow, olive, and hornbeam. When having an allergic reaction due to hay fever, you can expect a variety of symptoms. To reduce indoor allergen exposure, keep pets off the bed (dust mites are attracted to pet dander), vacuum often, set air conditioners to "recirculate", keep the windows closed, and check for moisture, if you have a mold allergy, he advises. Aside from pollen, "a lot of people are also allergic to dust mites and mold," says Tringale. For people who subscribe to homeopathy, a system of medicine based on the principle of treating "like with like", Dr. Wilson, a longtime allergy sufferer who gets groggy on OTC medications, says a product called Triple Allergy Defense ( available on , $29.95) works for her. (However, he cautions patients to stop using nasal decongestant sprays after five days, since the spray irritates the lining of the nose and can exacerbate symptoms, causing a rebound runny nose.) If allergies typically make you feel itchy, try non-sedating oral antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claratin), fexofenadine (Allegra), or cetirizine (Zyrtec). But for one in four Americans, spring also heralds seasonal allergies, an immune system response that turns sufferers into congested, itchy sneeze machines. That beautiful scented candle in your home could be triggering vasomotor rhinitis, a condition that triggers symptoms like sneezing and nasal congestion in the absence of allergies. According to Clifford Bassett, MD, medical director of Allergy and Asthma Care of New York , the gels, pastes, sprays, and serums you use to tame your hair every day could be triggering your allergy symptoms. Eye, nasal, and asthma symptoms are most common, and this problem calls for a professional exterminator. When the symptoms are year-round, they may also be caused by exposure to indoor allergens such as dust mites, indoor molds or pets. "Spring appears to be coming earlier, and this is affecting the tree pollen, which is a main source of spring hay fever." And an extended spring season alters the amounts of blooms and fungal spores that are known to exacerbate allergy symptoms. A grass allergy is common, and the good news is that you can live well with it by making small behavioral modifications and using OTC or prescription medications as needed. Allergies to grass can predispose a person to oral allergy syndrome (OAS) caused by cross-reactivity between proteins in fresh fruits and vegetables and grass pollen. One reason why grass allergy is so common is that the pollen is scattered by the wind and not carried around by insects, so there are simply more opportunities for exposure. Allergic rhinitis (sneezing, runny and stuffy nose, nasal congestion) Interestingly, grass allergy can also be associated with fruit pollen syndrome, resulting in food allergies to tomatoes, potatoes, and peaches. Does breathing in the fresh air of a beautiful spring day trigger itchy eyes and a runny nose? During allergy season, many people mistake allergic conjunctivitis with pink eye. If you think that you may have seasonal allergies due to pollen, there are a few steps you can take to avoid exposure. Just a few pumps of the saline spray into your nose several times a day will help flush out the allergens. This time of the year, you may experience a runny nose, sneezing, itchy throat or even a persistent cough and you may be asking yourself, Is it allergies or is it a cold?”. The symptoms of seasonal allergies can be uncomfortable. Take steps to avoid seasonal allergens. Common triggers of hay fever vary from one season to another. Depending on your allergy triggers and where you live, you may experience hay fever in more than one season. Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment. Read how thunderstorms can exacerbate symptoms in people with hay fever at The Washington Post. Probiotics may also be helpful in stopping those itchy eyes and runny noses: After analyzing more than 20 previous, and relevant, studies, researchers found that those who suffer from hay fever may benefit from using probiotics, or "good bacteria" thought to promote a healthy gut. People can also avoid pollen by keeping their windows closed in the spring, and by using air purifiers and air conditioners at home. Both in the spring or fall allergy seasons, pollen is released mainly in the morning hours and travels best on dry, warm and breezy days. The pollen that sits on brightly colored flowers, it is interesting to note, is rarely responsible for hay fever, because it is heavier and falls to the ground rather than being borne in the air. The most common allergen is pollen, a powder released by trees, grasses and weeds that fertilize the seeds of neighboring plants. People who are allergic to weeds are more likely to get other allergies and develop asthma as they age, Josephson said. Symptoms include itchy eyes, itchy nose, itchy throat, itchy ears, sneezing, irritability, nasal congestion and hoarseness. How to identify seasonal pet allergy symptoms.
However buy 1mg detrol with amex, the benef- of composite cardiovascular events purchase detrol 1mg on line, but it did reduce heart cial effect was primarily driven by a 38% reduction in heart fail- failure hospitalizations by 17% (12 generic detrol 1mg overnight delivery. Parallel themes of prevention now focus on treatment of The current paradigm for primary prevention of cardio- known risk factors, especially hypertension and diabe- vascular diseases emphasizes the importance of absolute tes, and the use of biomarkers to screen for subclinical cardiovascular disease risk to guide the intensity of pre- evidence of ventricular dysfunction. This is the driving principle behind choles- hypertension in those with increased cardiovascular risk terol treatment guidelines both in the United States, United and elevated biomarker profles would further increase the Kingdom, and Europe. Groups are defned by different levels of cardiovascular risk at baseline, and risk thresholds were selected to have similar event rates in each group. Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Although it is now an evident truth that lowering systolic References blood pressure to 120 mm Hg prevents heart failure in at- 1. It is not known whether ear- failure epidemic in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 2000 to 2010. Treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: for hypertension (primordial prevention) will prevent the refections on its treatment with an aldosterone antagonist. It is plausible that newer agents, like valsartan/sacubitril, for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ now indicated for heart failure, may represent potent thera- American Heart Association Task Force on clinical practice guidelines and the Heart pies to reduce the progression from hypertension to heart Failure Society of America. Testing the utility of val- dence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases sartan/sacubitril in this setting is a reasonable future step and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Diagnoses and timing of 30-day readmissions after hospitalization for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia. Forecasting the impact of heart failure in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Lifetime risk for developing congestive heart vent downstream heart failure events. Relation of disease pathogenesis and risk fac- tors to heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction: insights from the efforts at all stages of heart failure given the signifcant role of Framingham Heart Study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Through screening, followed by early and and survival (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study). Differences in the incidence of congestive before clinical heart failure, it is quite probable that we miti- heart failure by ethnicity: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure 32 National Academy of Sciences; 2012. Combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. A clinical converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Relationship of 24-hour blood blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent pressure mean and variability to severity of target-organ damage in hypertension. Prognostic implications of echo- patients randomized to doxazosin vs chlorthalidone: the antihypertensive and lipid- cardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study. Left ventricular mass predicts heart development of heart failure in hypertension: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of failure not related to previous myocardial infarction: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Regression of hypertensive left ventricular hyper- failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. N Engl J trophy by losartan compared with atenolol: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Med. Prognostic signifcance of left ventricular mass tricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. Results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study the effects of treatment on left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Increased left ventricular mass is a risk factor for sorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure. Characteristics of left ven- ity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of tricular diastolic dysfunction in the community: an echocardiographic survey. Effects of high-dose versus low-dose losartan Task Force to standardize deformation imaging. A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Effects of candesartan in patients with failure admissions from global left ventricular longitudinal strain in patients with acute chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin- myocardial infarction and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Role of microtubules in contractile dysfunction of in patients with chronic heart failure. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mor- metalloproteinases: relationship between changes in proteolytic determinants of matrix tality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study composition and structural, functional, and clinical manifestations of hypertensive heart Investigators. Alterations in the pattern of col- patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Sibling correlation of left ventricular mass and geom- predisposition of African Americans to vascular diseases. Omapatrilat and enalapril and function: a meta-analysis and replication of genome-wide association data. Irbesartan in patients with heart failure and Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction in lipid modifcation, July 2014. Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in 96. Effect of spironolactone on diastolic function Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the experts). Spironolactone for heart failure with preserved ejec- based on cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. A randomized trial of intensive versus in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone standard blood-pressure control. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with preserved ejection fraction: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Moreover, hyperten- 150/85 mm Hg despite having started dialysis four years prior, sive hemodialysis patients demonstrate elevations in endo- a rate slightly higher than a prevalence rate of 75% observed thelin-1 compared with normotensive dialysis-dependent in other studies. For every on the morning after dialysis are the most prognostic and increase in systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg, the hazard reproducible. These results are even more remarkable considering those individu- als with baseline diastolic blood pressure in excess of 115 mm Hg were excluded. Proposed pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hyper- tension in the setting of subtle renal parenchymal injury. There was no association between diastolic hyper- 29 Magnitude of Blood Pressure Lowering and tension and renal outcome. One trial evaluating patients with type I diabetes with nephropathy (mean creatinine 1. However, neither therapy cardiovascular mortality with the risk proportionate to dis- failed to alter morphologic progression of diabetic nephropa- ease severity. Those treated to a tighter blood pressure control also had higher rates of syncope, acute kid- 600 Indicates continuous ney injury, and hypotension. Again, patients were included only if they had been on dialysis for one or more years. Doubling of creatinine occurred in 43% of placebo- pressures in excess of 160 mm Hg. Similar U-shaped curves treated patients versus 25% receiving captopril over three were noted for diastolic pressures, with a hazard ratio of years of follow-up. Dry-weight reduction in hypertensive hemodialysis patients one month with a decrease in blood pressure of 6. Compared with amlodipine and placebo, irbe- ference in the number of cardiac endpoints reached between sartan reduced proteinuria to a greater degree and was asso- groups, the incidence of hyperkalemia, hypotension, and renal ciated with a 30% to 35% lower risk of doubling of serum impairment was signifcantly more common in those assigned creatinine compared with placebo or amlodipine. As in the study examining irbesartan, the beneft was not outcomes compared with placebo-treated patients. In a randomized controlled trial of mentioned dual therapy on cardiovascular and renal out- 80 individuals with persistent diabetic nephropathy (mean comes. The Gauging pril monotherapy or dual therapy with eplerenone (doses: 50 Albuminuria Reduction with Lotrel in Diabetic Patients with to 100 mg/day).
Early in the illness cheap 4mg detrol mastercard, young adults are often the ﬁrst manifestation of a compassionate but frank interview with the multiple sclerosis or postinfectious generic 2 mg detrol with amex, and cases in patient and often family should focus on the older adults are predominately a spinal cord mass buy 4mg detrol with mastercard, patient’s terminal wishes, and these should be varicella-zoster virus infection, or ischemia. Some patients desire assisted ventilation terminally, while many others do not Pathophysiology wish to undergo a tracheostomy and be mechani- Damage to the spinal cord occurs by several mech- cally ventilated for the rest of their life as they anisms. A vital capacity of mass locally destroying that part of the spinal cord less than 50% of that predicted increases the likeli- (such as a tuberculoma, ependymoma, bacterial hood of development of respiratory failure. Younger patients live somewhat longer, as fectious transverse myelitis and multiple sclerosis). The fourth mechanism is direct infection of spinal Introduction cord oligodendrocytes or neurons, as seen in viral Myelitis implies inﬂammation within the spinal infections such as varicella-zoster virus following cord that may be focal or diffusely involve the shingles or poliovirus. Spinal strates focal areas of segmental demyelination, cord tumors and abscesses are well circumscribed with perivenous inflammation and variable and strongly enhance with gadolinium. Principles of Management and Prognosis Major Clinical Features Patients should be hospitalized, usually in an Acute transverse myelitis is preceded by an upper intensive care unit, during the acute stage. Physical therapy is required during paresis or quadraparesis, (2) sphincteric distur- rehabilitation. About 1/3 of patients make a good bance, (3) bilateral Babinski signs, (4) variable recovery, 1/3 a moderate recovery (able to walk) back pain, and (5) sensory level most often at the and 1/3 a poor recovery (need a wheelchair). If the sensory level is in the thoracic area, paraparesis develops while lesions involving the high cervical spinal cord often produce Low Back Pain with Radiculopathy quadraparesis and impaired respiration. Lesions in the lumbar spinal cord produce varying degrees of Introduction leg weakness. Initially spinal shock may be present, with ﬂaccid limb weakness and absent reﬂexes. One or more episodes of low back pain are experi- Over weeks the spinal shock resolves and upper enced by 2/3 of adults. Although most do not seek motor symptoms (leg spasticity, hyperactive medical attention, low back pain is a common rea- reflexes, and Babinski signs) develop. However, as affer- and another 1% are temporarily disabled such that ent sensory ﬁbers often climb several segments they seek worker’s compensation. Low lesion location may actually be several spinal cord back pain affects men and women equally. Headache and neck stiffness are peak age of onset ranges between 30 and 50 years uncommon unless the lesion is in the cervical of age. In postinfectious transverse myelitis, ally protruding lumbar disk that creates sufﬁcient no infectious agents are identiﬁed. The lesion, In the evaluation of a patient with low back maximal in the central spinal cord area, often pain, the clinician should ﬁrst determine whether extends vertically over 1 to 3 spinal cord segments. Attention should be paid to determine whether the low back pain is most likely infectious (e. Finally, the history and exam should Fibrosus determine whether a radiculopathy or cauda Disc equina syndrome is present. The disc compresses the nerve root as it exits the neural The stability of the spine results from the integrity foramen. The voluntary and Over 90% of clinically signiﬁcant problems stem reﬂex contractions of the paraspinous, gluteus from an L4-to-L5 or L5-to-S1 disk herniation, maximus, hamstrings, and iliopsoas muscles are with compression of the L5 or S1 nerve root. In the healthy disk, the center contains the gelatinous, Major Clinical Features spongy nucleus pulposus, which is surrounded by Patients with back disease may complain of pain, an envelope of ﬁbrous tissue called the annulus stiffness, limitation of movement, and spine defor- ﬁbrosus. Local pain shock absorber to the everyday trauma of walking comes from irritation of pain ﬁbers in the lower and jumping. After the second decade, deposition back and is often described as a steady and aching of collagen, elastin, and altered glycosaminogly- pain that is not well circumscribed and occasion- cans in the nucleus pulposus causes it to loss water ally becomes sharp. The cartilaginous end plate becomes back pain worsened by bending, twisting, or lifting less vascular. The resulting disk becomes thinner and may often use involuntary splinting or tight- and more fragile; it bulges, and with injury ening of back muscles to prevent vertebral move- extrudes. Referred pain may in 3/ of asymptomatic adults over the age of 50 4 occur, with patients describing a diffuse and deep years. However, the extrusion of the nucleus pul- ache in the buttocks, pelvis, ﬂank, lateral hip, posus may produce local back pain from an groin, and anterior thigh. Muscle spasm pain is inﬂammatory response and the extrusion frag- usually paraspinous in nature and associated with ment may compress or stretch nerve roots before paraspinous muscles that prevent motion of the they exit the neural foramina. Radicular or “root” pain from Since back pain also develops from other spinal stretching, irritation, or compression of a spinal structures, the cause of isolated low back pain is root is described as sharp, intense pain (sciatica) seldom determined, forcing the use of imprecise that radiates from the back down a leg in varying terms such as back strain or back sprain. Coughing, sneezing, and straining at stool (val- the protrusion may compress a nerve root (Figure salva maneuvers) may aggravate the pain. Lower extremity radiculopathy mainly comes As noted above, the patient should not have an from compression of L4, L5, and S1 nerve roots. An enlarged The straight-leg-raising test can often help in prostate should not be present that would suggest determining the presence of radicular pain. The leg is Examination of the back should include inspec- elevated slowly to about 70° and then the foot is tion of the lower back to determine if local muscle dorsiflexed (Figure 7-6). Patients with radicular spasms are present and if the pain increases by body pain describe sciatica pain that radiates below movements such as bending forward or backward. The presence of localized pain to a speciﬁc radiculopathy may also produce relative numb- tender vertebra should raise concerns of a possible ness in a particular dermatome, leg paresthesias, localized process such as epidural abscess, vertebral weakness of muscles in the involved myotomes, metastasis, or vertebral fracture. With the onset of acute In the patient with chronic radiculopathy, the radicular pain, the patient may prefer lying supine involved muscles may be hypotonic and with the legs ﬂexed at the knees and hips. There may be weakness of plantar ﬂexion of the big toe and foot, making walking on the toes difﬁcult. After 3 weeks, the radicu- lopathy produces sufﬁcient root compression to Dorsiflexion produce denervation changes in innervated mus- cles that include ﬁbrillations and positive sharp waves. Her- niated disks and whether the herniation impinges on a spinal root or neural foramina can be seen. It is important to note that disk abnormalities are commonly seen on neuroimaging, especially after (b) middle age, and are often incidental and noncon- tributory to the patient’s symptoms. Since anatomy is not function, neuroimaging must always be cor- related with the history and neurologic exam. Principles of Management of Lumbar Disk Herniation and Prognosis Back pain is usually divided into acute (<3 months duration) and chronic (>3 months). It has been estimated that less than 5% of patients will require surgical intervention, L5 radiculopathy is common and usually due to but many patients will progress to chronic back an L4-to-L5 disk protrusion. Paresthesias may be felt in the entire territory pains, (2) activity changes, and (3) alteration in or distal portion. For most patients, acetamino- lateral calf and medial aspect of the dorsum of the phen or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs foot, including the ﬁrst two toes. Patients rior part of the thigh, posterior calf and heel, and should be encouraged to return quickly to normal lateral foot to the 4th and 5th toes. Paresthesias and activities, but not strenuous activities requiring lift- sensory loss occur mainly in the lateral foot and ing and bending. N Engl J smoking is thought to constrict vascular beds in the Med 2001;344:363–370. Transverse begin with walking short distances and simple back myelitis: Retrospective analysis of 33 cases, with exercises, which slowly progress in duration and differentiation of cases associated with multiple intensity. The prognosis of acute impingement, or cauda equina syndrome (bladder and subacute transverse myelopathy based on or bowel dysfunction, “saddle” numbness in the early signs and symptoms. Patients most (Excellent review of current theories of pathogen- likely to beneﬁt are those with considerable neuro- esis and end-of-life issues. The include the corticospinal tract, conducting motor longitudinal plane is usually divided into the mid- impulses from the cortex to the spinal cord, and long brain, pons, and medulla and the cross-sectional sensory tracts, conducting information from the divisions are usually medial and lateral. In important tracts and cranial nerve nuclei within addition, the brainstem contains the reticular for- this pattern of division. There are many small penetrat- In determining the location of lesions involving ing arterioles that enter the brainstem from these the brainstem, it is useful first to determine major vessels. The arterioles generally supply one whether the lesion is within the brainstem side of the medial brainstem (paramedian arteriole) (intraaxial) or lies outside the brainstem along the or one lateral side (circumferential arteriole). Extraaxial arteries (superior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior lesions initially affect cranial nerves through cerebellar artery, and posterior inferior cerebellar entrapment or compression, with later signs devel- artery) supply the cerebellum with blood and may oping from compressing brainstem structures or have branches also going to the brainstem. A typical with a lower frequency than the same diseases extraaxial lesion would be an untreated acoustic affecting other brain regions. Hemorrhages cerebellar cortex comes from many brainstem involving the brainstem are uncommon.
Biliary tract source: Piperacillin + metronidazole ± aminoglycoside Piperacillin-tazobactam or ampicillin-sulbactam ± aminoglycoside 4 purchase detrol 2mg with amex. Urinary tract infection (Nosocomial): Third-generation cephalosporin ± aminoglycoside Fluoroquinolone ± aminoglycoside Ticarcillin/clavulanate or piperacillin/tazobactam ± aminoglycoside Imipenem or meropenem ± aminoglycoside 5 cheap detrol 1mg amex. Meningitis Community-acquired: Ceftriaxone or cefotaxime + vancomycin 2–4 g/d effective 4mg detrol, ± rifampin Nosocomial: Ceftazidime + vancomycin 2–4 g/d 6. Dose: 24 mcg/kg/hr by continuous infusion × 96 hr (No dose modification for renal or hepatic failure) Efficacy: In the major clinical trial the 28 day mortality was 25% in drotrecogen recipients compared to 31% in the placebo group (p<0. Side effects: Major toxicity causes bleeding; in the large clinical trial the frequency of serious bleeding events was 3. Contraindication: Active, recent, or high risk of bleeding include trauma, epidural catheter, or intracranial lesion. Drug should be stopped 2 hours before invasive procedures and can be started 12 hrs after major surgery if hemostatis is adequate. Blood culture × 2, remove catheter, culture catheter tip and insert new catheter over guidewire 2. Assessment for possible oral antibiotic treatment: Patients at low risk for complications may often be treated with oral antibiotics if there is no focus of infection and lack of findings for systemic infection such as rigors or hypotension. High risk with no need for vancomycin: Monotherapy (see Figure 1) or dual therapy: aminoglycoside plus either an antipseudomonal penicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, or carbapenem. High risk and vancomycin needed: Vancomycin plus cefepime, ceftazidime, or carbapenem plus/minus aminoglycoside. Figure 3: Treatment of patients who have persistent fever after 3–5 days of treatment and for whom the etiology of the fever is not found. Persistent fever at 3 days and no change in patient condition: Continue same antibiotics, but consider discontinuing vancomycin if there is no clear need for it. Persistent fever at 3–5 days and progressive disease: Change antibiotic regimen depending on the initial regimen. This includes the addition of vancomycin if it was not initially used and there are criteria for it, or consideration of discontinuing vancomycin if it was included in the initial regimen. Persistent fever at days 5–7: Consider antifungal agent such as amphotericin B, lipid amphotericin B (no more effective, but reduced toxicity), or fluconazole. Fluconazole is acceptable at an institution where Aspergillus and azole-resistant Candida infections are uncommon, where fluconazole was not used as prophylaxis, and when there is no evidence of pulmonary disease or sinusitis. Recent reviews have not shown clear advantages in efficacy for empiric use of amphotericin B, lipid amphotericin, itraconazole, or fluconazole. Antibiotic discontinuation (Figure 4): Low risk patients may have antibiotics discontinued when they are afebrile 5–7 days. Hypotension: Systolic <90 mm Hg for adults or <5th percentile by age for children or orthostatic syncope. Negative results for the following (if obtained): Cultures of blood, throat, and cerebrospinal fluid; negative serology for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, leptospirosis, or measles. Renal impairment: creatinine 2177 6mol/L (22 mg/dL) for adults or greater than or equal to twice the upper limit of normal for age. In patients with preexisting renal disease, a 22-fold elevation over the baseline level 2. In patients with preexisting liver disease a 22-fold elevation over the baseline level 4. Adult respiratory distress syndrome defined by acute onset of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia in the absence of cardiac failure, or evidence of diffuse capillary leak manifested by acute onset of generalized edema, or pleural or peritoneal effusions with hypoalbuminemia 5. Experimental models of fulminant infections show clindamycin is superior, presumably because it inhibits protein synthesis and activity is independent of inoculum size. Clindamycin or clindamycin plus penicillin is preferred for necrotizing fasciitis, myositis, empyema, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Surgery: Prompt and aggressive exploration and debridement of deep-seated infections are important Editors: Bartlett, John G. Title: 2004 Pocket Book of Infectious Disease Therapy, 12th Edition Copyright ©2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins > Table of Contents > Specific Infections > Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic Infections 1. Ampicillin-sulbactam inhibitors fragilis fragilis fragilis Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol Cefoxitin Penicillin G Penicillin G Imipenem Imipenem Cefoperazone Piperacillin Piperacillin Penicillin G Metronidazole Cefotaxime Trovafloxacin Ceftazidime Piperacillin Clindamycin Moxifloxacin Cefotetan Cefotaxime Trovafloxacin Cefotetan Cefoperazone Piperacillin Moxifloxacin Cefoxitin Ceftriaxone Gatifloxacin Trovafloxacin Gatifloxacin Moxifloxacin Clindamycin 85–95% Cefoxitin Cefotetan Cefoperazone Metronidazole Cefotetan Gatifloxacin Ceftazidime Cefotaxime Ciprofloxacin Cefoxitin Moxifloxacin Ceftriaxone Moxifloxacin Levofloxacin Ceftriaxone Gatifloxacin Clindamycin 70–84% Piperacillin Penicillin G Ceftazidime Cefoxitin Ceftizoxime Ciprofloxacin Clindamycin Clindamycin 50–69% Cefotetan Levofloxacin — — Metronidazole Cefoperazone Fluoroquinolones Cefotaxime Ceftazidime Ceftriaxone <50% Levofloxacin Ciprofloxacin Ceftazidime Ciprofloxacin Penicillin G 2. Modified from National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Working Group on Anaerobic Susceptibility Testing (J Clin Microbiol 26:1253, 1988. Title: 2004 Pocket Book of Infectious Disease Therapy, 12th Edition Copyright ©2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins > Table of Contents > Specific Infections > Fever of Unknown Origin Fever of Unknown Origin A. Negative diagnostic evaluation with one week in hospital Contemporary: 2 modifications 1. Etiologic diagnosis in the 5 standard categories: Infection, neoplasm, connective tissue, miscellaneous, and undiagnosed: Source Petersdorf1 Larson2 Barbado3 Knockaert4 Likuni5 DeKleijn6 Vander7 Period of 1952–57 1970–80 1968–81 1980–89 1982–92 1992–94 1991–99 review Location U. Spain Belgium Japan Netherlands Belgium Number 100 105 133 197 153 167 189 Diagnosis 91 84 78 74 88 69 52 made, % Infection, %* 40 36 39 30 33 37 30 Neoplasm, %* 21 38 25 10 16 18 15 Connective 19 15 19 13 35 33 34 tissue, %* Miscellaneous, 21 11 16 29 16 11 20 %* * % in cases with a final diagnosis 1 Medicine 1961;40:1 2 Medicine 1982;61:269 3 J Med 1984;15:185 4 Arch Intern Med 1992;152:51 5 Intern Med 1994;33:67 6 Medicine 1997;76:392 7 Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1033 P. Major conditions within categories in most contemporary reviews (Arch Intern Med 2003;16:1033. Connective tissue: Still disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, and granulomatous disease (sarcoid, Crohn disease, granulomatous hepatitis, and temporal arteritis) 4. Miscellaneous: Pulmonary emboli, drug fever, periodic fever, and “habitual hyperthermia” 5. No diagnosis: Long-term follow-up in 80 cases showed no late sequelae (Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1033. For skin preparation, povidine iodine (10%) should be allowed to dry 2 minutes and tincture of iodine (1–2%) should be allowed to dry 30 seconds. With an intravenous catheter, one peripheral vein sample and one through the catheter is an alternative to 2 peripheral vein samples, but the results provide less precise information. If there is evidence of tunnel infection, emboli events, vascular compromise, or sepsis the catheter should be removed. Pulmonary infection: The evaluation should include a chest x-ray, Gram stain, and culture of respiratory secretions and pleural fluid evaluation (if present) P. If disease is severe and the toxin test is negative or delayed, it is appropriate to treat empirically with metronidazole. Pyuria should be tested by esterase dipstick and Gram stain of centrifuged urine sediment. If the delay in culture of collected urine >1 hr it should be refrigerated or placed in a preservative. Unexplained fever >72 hrs post-operative should be evaluated with chest x-ray, urine culture and urinanalysis, and exam for phlebitis, thrombosis, pulmonary emoblism, and wound infection. Title: 2004 Pocket Book of Infectious Disease Therapy, 12th Edition Copyright ©2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins > Table of Contents > Specific Infections > Treatment of Lyme Disease and Potential Exposures Treatment of Lyme Disease and Potential Exposures (Recommendations of Med Letter 2000;42:37. Tick control with acaricide (cardaryl, cyfluthrin, or deltamethrin) in early May reduces I. Note that treatment of early Lyme disease (erythema migrans stage) prevents late sequelae in >95% (Ann Intern Med 1983;99:22. Seroconversion occurs in 27% with symptoms <7 days, 41% with symptoms 7–14 days and 88% with symptoms >14 days (Ann Intern Med 2002;136:421. Confirmation of late Lyme disease requires objective evidence of Lyme disease plus laboratory evidence Culture: Erythema migrans—saline lavage needle aspiration or 2 mm punch biopsy P. A positive Western blot confirms the diagnosis and a negative Western blot greatly decreases the probability of Lyme so that treatment is not indicated. Phases: Erythema migrans Early disseminated Lyme disease with carditis and neurologic features including lymphocytic meningitis and radiculoneuropathies Late Lyme disease with peripheral neuropathies, chronic encephalopathy, or arthritis with migratory polyarthritis and/or monoarthritis. The term “chronic Lyme disease” (in reference to debilitating fatigue) was first applied in 1985 and has no objective findings, but there is considerable support from Internet site advocacy groups and some physicians (Ann Intern Med 2002;136:413. Title: 2004 Pocket Book of Infectious Disease Therapy, 12th Edition Copyright ©2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins > Table of Contents > Specific Infections > Infections of Epidermis, Dermis, and Subcutaneous Tissue Infections of Epidermis, Dermis, and Subcutaneous Tissue Condition Agent Laboratory Treatment diagnosis Superficial erythematous lesions Abscess S. May be controlled with chronic clindamycin 150 mg qd × 3 mo* Nasal carriers of staph—mupirocin to anterior nares or rifampin 300 mg bid × 5 days Paronychia: Infection S. Gram stain amoxicillin + clavulanate; topical pustules on exposed aureus Average yield mupirocin (Am J Dis Child 144:1313, areas ± of strep even 1990; Arch Dermatol 125:1069, 1989) lymphadenopathy with biopsy is only 25% Whitlow: Infection of S. Penicillin*, tetracycline moniliformis moniliformis: Giemsa stain of blood or pus; culture; serology Spirillum minus S. Topical sulfa (silver Candida albicans, culture and sulfadiazine or mafenide) Aspergillus, stain of biopsy Empiric antibiotics: Aminoglycoside + Herpes simplex, nafcillin, antipseudomonad penicillin, group A strep ticarcillin-clavulanate, vancomycin or cephalosporin H.
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