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Other outbreaks If none of the above is appropriate discount rumalaya 60 pills online, select the Other Risk Factor discount rumalaya 60pills, and specify as precisely as possible order 60 pills rumalaya fast delivery. Management of the Outbreak How was the Indicate whether there was any specific action taken to control the outbreak. If yes, outbreak indicate which control measures were undertaken and provide details. Was insufficient Indicate whether insufficient information to complete the form was provided. Condition and implicated contaminant Some common contaminants (pathogen/toxin/chemical) and their suggested corresponding conditions (diseases) are listed below. Note that the following conditions are also available in the conditions (diseases) drop-down list where pathogen might be unknown/ unavailable: conjunctivitis, dengue fever, gastroenteritis - unknown cause, influenza-like illness, respiratory illness, toxic shellfish poisoning, etc Please contact EpiSurv Support to add to the list(s). A list that matches your entry will appear as soon as you type in at least three characters into the field. Some lists will show all options available if you press the down () button on the keyboard, for example Food Category, Pathogen, Subtype, etc. Please use the Clear button available to the right of the field, to clear any entries instead of using the Backspace or Delete keys on your keyboard to ensure your entry is properly cleared. Once the field(s) is completed, click the Save button (or Cancel to clear the entry) to save the entry. Note that your outbreak report form cannot be saved in EpiSurv if have not saved (or cancelled) your new entry. By selecting this checkbox, the list will expand to include all relevant national options. Free-text fields Most free-text fields in EpiSurv are not marked as confidential (includes the Comments field), so remember to avoid entering identifying information into this field. Clicking the Save Clicking the Save button regularly will help you avoid losing any information or button EpiSurv timing out while you are editing an outbreak report form. This is a memory list of any health officer entry used/added in the last six months in EpiSurv. A list showing the condition to select for a given implicated contaminant in the appendix. Note that where it is not possible to specify an implicated contaminant, it may still be possible to select a condition, e. Click in the Pathogen, Subtype, or Condition fields and press the arrow down key to see the values currently available. If there is a second implicated contaminant or condition, select the Yes option button for the Other known condition/implicated pathogen and complete the second Pathogen, Subtype, or Condition fields as above. Setting where Once the header option, and the detail option have been selected, users can choose exposure occurred the Setting name from a drop-down list. Selecting a Setting name from the list will automatically populate all the relevant address fields. To add a new setting to the drop-down list, all address details should be completed, and the entry Saved. Setting where Once the header option and the detail option have been selected, users can choose contaminated the Setting name from a drop-down list. Selecting a Setting name from the list will food/beverage was automatically populate all the relevant address fields. Overseas exposure Overseas outbreaks are those where two or more people have been infected from a common event or other defined source, not where a single case is imported into New Zealand and the disease subsequently transmitted. Appendix 9: Guidelines for the structure of an outbreak investigation report The following are guidelines for the structure of an outbreak investigation report. The contents of the report will vary depending on the circumstances of the outbreak. Each of the items listed below should at least be considered for inclusion in the investigation report. Environmental investigation Inspection and interviews with staff during site visit. Laboratory investigation How specimens were collected and analysed (laboratory and method). Case investigation Case definition used (provisional and final, if appropriate). Method of statistical analysis The methods used (appropriate to the study design) Software (and version) used 24. Laboratory investigation What organisms were identified from laboratory tests, including subtyping if performed? Investigation of subjects Number of responses and participation rate (in total, and by cases and non-cases/controls). These data may most informatively be expressed in tables, including attack rates (see below for examples). Examples of possible tables/graphs to accompany the report The appropriate tables to accompany the report will vary according to whether the investigation has a retrospective cohort or case-control design. Tables for retrospective cohort studies Table 1: Attack rates by demographic characteristics. Characteristic Number of cases Number of Total Attack rate non-cases (%) Age Group (yrs. Tables for case-control studies Table 4: Demographic characteristics of cases and controls Characteristic Cases Controls Number % Number % Age Group (yrs. Note: Differences between cases and controls should be examined with appropriate statistical tests (Chi-square or t-test). Table 5: Frequency distribution of case symptoms and clinical features Symptom/ clinical feature Number Per cent Vomiting Diarrhoea etc. Note that when controls are sampled from the population of non-cases in a clearly defined exposed population, it may be appropriate to show similar data on them also (see Table 2). However, in other circumstances the exposed/not exposed dichotomy will not be appropriate. For example, if the degree of exposure is of interest, then it will be necessary to allocate cases and controls to exposure categories. For example, if the volume of water consumed is of interest, then cases and controls would be divided into several categories depending on the amount of water they consumed, and one of these categories (probably the one with the lowest consumption) would be used as the reference. It is important that the cut-points that divide the categories be determined in an unbiased way. One way of doing this is to obtain a frequency distribution of exposures for all subjects, without regard to case or control status and then to take, say, quartiles or tertiles of the whole group (depending on the number of subjects overall). For the purposes of the analysis, one of these categories should arbitrarily be set as the reference category (often the one that is least suspect, but that is not critical), and the others measured against it. The epidemic curve This is a histogram or bar chart showing the time-course of the outbreak on the horizontal axis, with the number of cases on the vertical axis. Time may be expressed as either specific dates, or as time since exposure, if that is known (e. Contents Introduction and background 4 Burden of chronic diseases in Oregon 7 Priority Areas Tobacco use 10 Obesity 14 Heart disease and stroke 18 Colorectal cancer 22 Appendices Appendix A — Data sources 26 Appendix B — Healthy Places, Healthy People Framework 27 Appendix C — Acknowledgements 29 Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention • 5 Year Plan 3 Introduction and background Health should be within reach for all communities. Everyone deserves access to healthy options where they live, work, play and learn. Today, nutritious food, places to play and be active, and smokefree air are out of reach for too many Oregonians. As a result, chronic diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and cancer, are on the rise. But the burden of living with chronic disease is not the same for all communities. There is growing evidence that a person’s race, ethnicity, gender, income, disability, sexual orientation and geographic location determine the likelihood of many chronic diseases. All Oregonians deserve convenient access to foods and activities that help them live better, regardless of their income, education or ethnicity. This means achieving better health, better care, and lower health care costs for all Oregonians. With support from health partners and advocates, Oregon created the first integrated chronic disease plan.
Garlic may inhibit platelet activity through inhibition of thromboxane syn- thesis generic 60pills rumalaya amex. It has been suggested that the potent enzyme-inhibiting activities of adenosine deaminase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodi- esterase in garlic extracts may play a significant role in the antithrombotic buy rumalaya 60 pills free shipping, vasodilatory cheap rumalaya 60 pills fast delivery, and anticancer actions of garlic. Animal and in vitro studies have provided evidence of garlic’s anticar- cinogenic effect. Both water- and lipid-soluble allyl sulfur compounds are effective in blocking a myriad of chemically induced tumors. Garlic seems to prevent carcinogenesis by detoxifying chemical carcinogens and directly inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. It is reported to enhance immunity both through stimulating the activity of immunocompetent cells such as macrophages, natural killer cells, and killer cells and through increasing the production of interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor, and interferon-γ. Garlic achieves a hypoglycemic effect through increased serum insulin levels and enhanced glycogen storage. Garlic achieves an antimicrobial effect through reacting with the sulfhydryl group on enzymes used by microorganisms for nutrition (e. However, the reaction required to activate alliin in dried garlic cannot occur in the acid environment of the stomach. Dried gar- lic must be enteric-coated and activated in the intestines if it is to be effective. Chapter 68 / Garlic (Allium sativum) 543 A frequently used dose is 400 to 1000 mg of dried garlic or 2 to 5 g of fresh garlic. An analysis of eight reviews indicated that although garlic has a modest short-term lipid-lowering effect, its clinical relevance is uncertain. Consequently, potential bene- fits from garlic ingestion cannot yet be definitely excluded. It remains possible, albeit improbable, that regular daily ingestion of 4 g or 2 average-sized cloves of fresh garlic may help prevent atherosclerosis and hypertension. Consuming 300 to 900 mg of standardized garlic powder over 2 or more years may protect against age-related changes in aortic elas- ticity. Despite inconsistency in dosage, standardization of garlic preparations, and period of treatment, most findings suggest that garlic decreases choles- terol and triglyceride levels in patients with increased levels of these lipids. When analyses of eight placebo-controlled trials were pooled, total cholesterol outcomes at 6 months showed no significant reductions in total cholesterol with garlic as compared with placebo. The reasons for sta- tistically significant positive short-term effects, but negative longer-term effects, are unclear. A ran- domized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel treatment study showed that administration of garlic powder for 12 weeks (900 mg/d, 300 mg taken with meals three times daily) was ineffective in lowering cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Despite several positive results, a review of trials suggests that the benefit of garlic to the cardiovascular system is limited; garlic has possible small short- term beneficial effects on some lipid and antiplatelet factors, insignificant effects on blood pressure, and no effect on glucose levels. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic literature suggests that a high intake of garlic (28 g/day) may be associated with a protective effect against stomach and col- orectal cancers. Topical use of sliced cloves or garlic oil three times daily for 1 to 2 weeks may also be useful for managing superficial infections. Chapter 68 / Garlic (Allium sativum) 545 Other, more common adverse reactions reported are gastrointestinal com- plaints such as dyspepsia, flatulence, and heartburn. Garlic should be used with caution or avoided by patients taking drugs or herbs that increase the risk of bleeding. This includes aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors, ginger, ginseng, Ginko biloba, feverfew, and willow bark. Patients taking aspirin or warfarin should avoid taking garlic in doses of 4 g or more and should only take garlic in these quantities if under medical supervision. Ali M, Thomson M, Afzal M: Garlic and onions: their effect on eicosanoid metabolism and its clinical relevance, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 62:55-73, 2000. Linde K, ter Riet G, Hondras M, et al: Systematic reviews of complementary therapies—an annotated bibliography. Breithaupt-Grogler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, et al: Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly, Circulation 96:2649-55, 1997. Garlic: effects on cardiovascular risks and disease, protective effects against cancer, and clinical adverse effects. Bianchini F, Vainio H: Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds: do they help prevent cancer? Ledezma E, Marcano K, Jorquera A, et al: Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: a double-blind and comparative study with terbinafine. The effects of ginkgo and garlic on warfarin use, J Neurosci Nurs 32:229-32, 2000. The rhizome of Zingiber officinale (ginger) is used both as a spice and a medic- inal. In fact, there is scientific approval for using this ancient medicine to stimulate digestion in persons with gastroin- testinal problems. Its ability to increase gastrointestinal activity has resulted in its use as an appetite stimulant for anorexia and for relief of dyspepsia, nausea, and flatulence. Gingerols are potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis and are also effective inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis. By modifying thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis, ginger reduces arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation. Fresh, unpeeled ginger, if tightly wrapped in plastic, will last for up to 14 days in the refrigerator or for up to 2 months in the freezer. Recommended therapeutic doses are 500 to 1000 mg of fresh root three times daily or 500 mg of dried root two to four times a day. The efficacy of ginger rhizome for the prevention of nausea, dizziness, and vomiting in motion sickness has been well documented and proved beyond doubt in numerous high-quality clinical studies. However, although ginger may be of benefit, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) appears to be more effective in reducing the severity of nausea in preg- nancy. The ability of ginger to inhibit prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthe- sis from arachidonic acid favors a less inflammatory state and may explain the symptomatic relief reported by some patients with arthritis and fibromyalgia. An effective dose may be achieved by taking 100 to 1000 mg of ginger in tablet form per day or by consuming 50 g of lightly cooked ginger or 5 g of raw ginger per day. Although eugenol (33 mg/kg) and ginger oil (33 mg/kg), given orally to rats for 26 days, caused a significant suppression of both paw and joint swelling,8 a controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover study in which ginger extract was compared with placebo in patients with osteoarthritis failed to show significant benefit. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, in which healthy volunteers consumed 15 g of raw ginger root or 40 g of cooked stem ginger or placebo over 2 weeks, demonstrated that thromboxane production decreased 9% for ginger root and 8% for stem ginger compared with placebo. Four grams of powdered ginger per day had no effect, but a sin- gle dose of 10 g produced a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. In doses of less than 4 g/day, ginger may be used with caution in patients receiving antacids or warfarin. Patients being treated with warfarin require medical supervision if they are taking ginger in doses of 4 or more grams daily. Ingestion of 6 g of fresh ginger causes exfoliation of gastric epithelium cells; therefore, ginger should be avoided or used cautiously by patients with pep- tic ulceration. Ginger has the potential to cause cardiac arrhythmia, bleeding, and cen- tral nervous system depression. Ginger may have a glycemic effect and should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Further information on the pharmacology and ethnomedical use of ginger is available. Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J: Ginger: history and use, Adv Ther 15:25-44, 1998. Vutyavanich T, Kraisarin T, Ruangsri R: Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial, Obstet Gynecol 97:577-82, 2001. Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, et al: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis, Osteoarthritis Cartilage 8:9-12, 2000. Afzal M, Al-Hadidi D, Menon M, et al: Ginger: an ethnomedical, chemical and pharmacological review, Drug Metabol Drug Interact 18:159-90, 2001. Its potential to improve cerebral ischemia has resulted in its use for sympto- matic treatment of dementia, vertigo, and tinnitus of vascular origin. Current publications suggest that although ginkgo is of questionable use for memory loss and tin- nitus, there is more convincing evidence that it has some effect on dementia and intermittent claudication.
The 4 womenin the control group showed more 133 regression than any of the menin that group buy 60pills rumalaya amex, even though analysers order 60pills rumalaya with amex, Dale Jones buy rumalaya 60 pills online, Yvonne Stuart; head angiography nurses, LaVeta men made the Luce, Geogie Hesse; angiographers, Craig Brandman, Bruce Brent, Ralph some greater lifestyle changes. Although Clark, Keith Cohn, James Cullen, Richard Francoz, Gabriel Gregoratos, numbers are small, these findings suggest the possibility that Lester Jacobsen, Roy Meyer, Gene Shafton, Brian Strunk, Anne Thorson; gender may affect progression and regression of radiologists Robert Bernstein, Myron Marx, Gerald Needleman, John Wack; atherosclerosis. Futher studies may determine whether lipid laboratory directors, Washington Bums, John Kane, Steve Kunitake; reverse atherosclerosis with more medical liaison, Patricia McKenna; research assistants, Patricia Chung, women can coronary Stephen Sparier; secretaries, Claire Finn, Kathy Rainbird. Although opposite selected yoga techniques in the treatmentof coronary heart disease. Effects of stress work is needed to determine the extent to which the relation management training and dietary changes in treating ischemic heart between and initial site of lesions is affected the disease. Identifying and measuring severity of coronary artery phenomenon of regression to the mean. Quantitative coronary arteriography and positron emission Increasing evidence supports the roles of diet, exercise, tomography. There are case-reports of regression involving very low density lipoproteins of human serum. J Clin Invest 1975; 56: femoral’9 and renal arteries,z° and one case-report of 1622-34. Pharmacologic aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine atherosclerosis can occur spontaneously in the absence of addiction. Randomised controlled trial of yoga and bio- making necessary feedback in management of hypertension. Trial regression of coronary atherosclerosis have been of relaxation in reducing coronary risk: four year follow up. Br Med J reported ’222325 and both used cholesterol-lowering drugs as 1985; 290: 1103-06. Decreased blood primary pressure in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients who Some important questions remain unanswered. Social isolation andmortality point ofour study wasto determine what is true, not what is in ischemic heart disease. Belgian heart disease needs to be very good regresion occur, prevention project: incidence and mortality results. Social stress and relative contribution of each component of the lifestyle atherosclerosis in normocholesterolemic monkeys. It would be interesting to examine the consequences ofsmoking: 25 years of progress. Areport of the Surgeon effects of lifestyle changes in a larger sample of General. Regression and Also, direct comparison of intensive lifestyle changes with progression of early femoral atherosclerosis in treated pharmacological or surgical interventions would be Ann Intern Med 86: 139-46. Regression of atherosclerotic changes may begin to reverse coronary atherosclerosis in stenosing lesions ofthe renal arteries and spontaneous cureofsystemic a hypertension through control of hyperlipidemia. Fetzer Institute, Continental Airlines, the combined colestipol-niacin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis and Enron Foundation, the Nathan Cummings Foundation, the Pritzker coronary venousbypass grafts. Niacin or lovastatin, combined Commerce Bank, Corrine and David Gould, Pacific Presbyterian Medical with colestipol, regress coronary atherosclerosis and prevent clinical Center Foundation, General Growth Companies, Arthur Andersen and Co. Review ofcurrent methods, their limitations, instructor, Mary Dale Scheller; exercise instructors, Therri Merrit, Lawrence and clinical applications. Dietary fat influences Jean-Marc Fullsack, Mark Hall, Jules Stenzel; quantitative angiography human coronary lesion formation. Employers Chronic diseases are ongoing, generally incurable illnesses and Employees or conditions, such as heart disease, asthma, cancer, and U. These diseases are often preventable, and of chronic disease through the increase in health costs as- frequently manageable through early detection, improved sociated with greater demand for and use of diet, exercise, and treatment therapy. This includes the “extra” cost t Chronic diseases are responsible for seven out of every of health insurance ($8 billion), sick leave ($2. The Global Burden of t Given current trends, one in three children born in 2000 15 Diabetic Foot Disease. Historical Overview of National Many chronic diseases could be prevented, delayed, or Health Expenditures. In some cases, inclusions are found exclusively in the central nervous system, whereas in others they may be diffusely disseminated in multiple tissues. This monoclonal antibody is going through rigorous validation testing and will provide more speciﬁcity and sensitivity than currently available routine histological diagnostics. Thus, there is conservation value in developing better diagnostic tools for screening snakes intended for release as part of reintroduction programs. It is not known what percentage of in- fected snakes will develop clinical signs of disease in Clinical Signs relation to those that will appear unaffected. It is possible that latent infections can persist for long From the late 1970s and extending into the mid- periods of time. Although several viruses, including ret- 4 early 1990s, more cases were diagnosed in boa con- roviruses, have been identiﬁed and isolated from strictors in relation to Burmese and other pythons. Although some snakes die within several mining the composition and factors affecting the weeks of ﬁrst manifesting illness, others may survive formation of this protein. Eventually the sequencing of lymphoproliferative disorders, and round cell tu- this protein will allow the creation of peptides that mors. Regurgitation was not a disease sign identiﬁed can be used in the development of better immuno- in Burmese pythons. Photomicrograph of amphophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in neurons of the brain. If identiﬁed, encephalitis is generally more se- pared with those of chronically affected snakes. Photomicrograph of eosinophilic tonsil from a necropsied snake showing numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (arrows) in neurons and glial cells in the intracytoplasmic inclusions (arrows) within submucosal lymphoid brain. Photomicrograph of the liver show- ing hepatocytes containing eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (arrows). Transmission electron photomicrograph derived clusters of small round subunits (Fig 8). During the initial stage of inclusion formation, protein deposited on the periphery of individual inclusions subunits from polyribosomes start accumulating in the adjacent cytoplasm. Deposited protein subunits have a showing acinar cells containing eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclu- virus-like appearance. Esophageal tonsils (ar- rows) are raised ovoid structures with a central cleft and covered by a mucous epithelium. Blood smears from sus- ageal tonsils are easily biopsied, ﬁxed, and routinely pect cases can be examined for presence of inclu- processed for light microscopy. For a more rapid diagnosis, cytological also have inclusions in circulating white blood cells. Hematoxylin and eosin–staining recommendations for impression smears and blood ﬁlms 1. Peripheral blood ﬁlm with an erythrocyte (arrow) and lymphocyte (arrowhead) containing eosino- Figure 15. Based on size (80-110 nm) and morphology, the virus resem- Cause and Transmission bled C-type retroviruses. Using transmission electron microscopy, 4 observed in transmission electron microscopy of tis- viral morphogenesis in cell culture was described. Huder and coworkers isolated and sequenced endogenous retroviruses from Bur- Figure 16. Extracellular retroviral phocyte containing an eosinophilic-staining inclusion (arrow). Transmission studies have been performed in Burmese pythons and boa constrictors by inocu- lating young Burmese pythons with the supernatant of primary cultured kidney cells taken from an in- fected boa constrictor, resulting in the development of clinical signs and microscopic lesions associated Figure 17. A single egg can be seen within the were administered ﬁltered liver homogenate ob- mite. First and foremost, a solid preventative is impossible to implicate a retrovirus as the under- medicine program should be established. Although lying etiology of inclusion formation in the inocu- no such program is 100% effective, the main objec- lated snakes. The protein and the isolated important component to a preventative medicine viruses must be sequenced to gain a better under- program. Thus, preventing mites from entering a are sold over the internet and purchased at reptile collection and eliminating established infestations expositions, new snake “breeders” establish them- are essential components of a preventive medicine selves, seemingly, on a daily basis. It is also possible the causative agent is authors’ experience, the vast majority of snakes that passed through vertical transmission from mother to die in a collection never have a thorough necropsy young in both egg-laying and live-bearing snakes.
Some patients may have mild splenomegaly and hepatomegaly generic 60pills rumalaya visa, and mild to severe hemolytic anemia is common as well discount 60 pills rumalaya with mastercard. Recovery is slow purchase rumalaya 60pills free shipping, with malaise and fatigue persisting for several months (Ruebush, 1984). The incubation period between the tick bite and the appearance of symptoms can range from 7 to 28 days. Because of epidemiologic similarities with infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia spp. The Disease in Animals: In the affected domestic species the symptomatology of babesiosis is similar, characterized by the triad of fever, anemia, and jaundice. The sensitivity of nervous tissue to anoxia often results in symptoms of agitation and convulsions. Babesiosis in cattle can range from mild to fatal, and those animals that recover usually harbor a subclinical infection and act as healthy carriers. Calves and young equines 6 to 9 months of age are relatively resistant to the infection and disease. In endemic areas, most animals acquire an asymptomatic infection when they are young that confers premunition (i. By contrast, animals arriving from parasite-free areas usually develop a severe form of the disease. Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission: The reservoirs for domestic animals and rodents are other infected animals, which are often healthy carriers. There have been about eight reports of human Babesia infection due to blood transfusion (Mintz et al. Asymptomatic donors carry the infection for up to 12 months after they initially acquire the infection themselves. Diagnosis: A diagnosis of babesiosis should be suspected when the clinical symptoms coincide with an epidemiological history of tick bites or visits to enzootic areas. It is confirmed in febrile or acute cases when parasites are seen inside ery- throcytes on Giemsa-stained thin or thick blood smears. In more chronic cases with low parasitemia, a diagnosis can be made using serologic examinations such as the indirect immunofluorescence test or the inoculation of blood into susceptible animals. In chronic cases, or before babesias appear in the blood in detectable numbers, the polymerase chain reaction can be used to detect the specific nucleic acids of the parasite (Krause et al. Control: For domestic animals in endemic areas, the most effective control meas- ure is to prevent intense infestation by the tick vectors. There is now a vaccine that invokes an immunologic response against Boophilus microplus infestation in cattle; as this tick is the main vector of babesiosis in cattle, the reduction of tick infestation also reduces the transmission of the disease (de la Fuente et al. Cattle intro- duced into endemic areas may be protected by the administration of commercially available live vaccines or by artificial premunition, i. Since the human infection is usually sporadic and occurs only after visits to endemic areas, it is recommended that on such occasions people use protective clothing or tick repellents, and following the visit, that they examine themselves closely for nymphs, which are very small. Those living in endemic areas should con- trol rodents inside the home and cut down shrubbery surrounding the dwelling to control the presence of nymphs. Field studies and cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination with Gavac™ against the cat- tle tick, Boophilus microplus. Seroepidemiology of emerging tickborne infectious diseases in a Northern California community. A fatal case of babesiosis in Missouri: Identification of another piroplasm that infects humans. Immunoserologic evidence of coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and human granulocytic Ehrlichia species in residents of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Human babesiosis in Taiwan: Asymptomatic infection with a Babesia microti-like organism in a Taiwanese woman. Etiology: Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoan that affects swine, primates (including humans) and, rarely, guinea pigs, dogs, and rats. It has been isolated from 27 species of vertebrates (Wenyon, 1926), but its identification is dubious in many cases. The vegetative form (or trophozoite) measures 30–150 µm in length and 25–120 µm in width; it is ovoid, with a slightly elongated end in which there is a tri- angular cell mouth, or cytostome, and it is covered with short cilia in a spiral pat- tern. The infective form (the cyst) measures 45–65 µm in diameter, is round, and contains the ciliated organism, sometimes mobile and often with vacuoles, within a thick but transparent double wall (Neva and Brown, 1994). As is characteristic of ciliates, both forms have a large kidney-shaped nucleus, or macronucleus, which is respon- sible for vegetative functions, and a smaller spherical nucleus, or micronucleus, which is not always visible and is responsible for sexual reproduction, when it occurs. Hence, the Balantidium cyst possesses the same number of nuclei as the trophozoite (García and Bruckner, 1997). The trophozoites live in the lumen of the large intestine and, occasionally, invade the mucosa and other tissues. They replicate by transverse binary fission and, some- times, by budding or conjugation. The cysts form in the fecal matter as it passes through the intestine or in the soft feces that are excreted. In man, it is most often found in indi- viduals who are in contact with swine and those exposed to poor environmental hygiene conditions. Four surveys car- ried out between 1988 and 1996 in apparently healthy populations found preva- lences of 0. Occasionally, how- ever, circumstances arise that facilitate the infection of a sizable segment of popula- tion. In studies in indigenous communi- ties of Bolivia and Peru and in isolated rural populations in Chile, presumably with poor sanitary conditions, the infection was detected in 8%, 6%, and 4. Prevalences of 60% to 90% have been reported in animals in a single herd and in 60% or more of the herds examined. In symptomatic infections, the par- asite first causes congestion and hyperemia of the mucosa and then small ulcers, which may spread and ultimately destroy large areas of epithelium. The organisms generally invade the intestinal crypts and cause inflammation due to lymphocytes and eosinophils, as well as microabscesses and necrosis. They may spread into the muscularis mucosae and, on rare occasions, perforation of the intestinal wall has occurred. In acute cases, the patient pres- ents with severe diarrhea, often with mucus, blood, and pus in the stools. In chronic cases, the patient may alternate between diarrhea and constipation and suffer from abdominal pain, anemia, and cachexia. It invades the intestinal mucosa only when prior damage enables its entry and, even in these cases, it does not appear to cause any reaction in the tissues. Infection of dogs and rats is rare, and invasion of the tissues in these species is even less frequent. Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission: In many cases, the infection in man has been conclusively linked to contamination of water and food by feces of infected pigs or to close contact with pigs. However, the infection exists in Muslim countries where pigs are not raised (Geddes, 1952), and epidemics have occurred in mental hospitals where no pigs were present (Faust et al. The cyst is a much more efficient means of transmission than the trophozoite, since it can survive outside the body for two weeks or more at ambient temperatures. Diagnosis: The symptomatology of balantidiasis is such that it cannot be differ- entiated clinically from other causes of dysentery. Similarly, it is not possible to dis- tinguish it from amebiasis through endoscopic observation of intestinal lesions. Diagnosis is based on detection of trophozoites, which are most commonly found in watery diarrheal stools, or cysts, which are particularly abundant in formed stools. The trophozoite, obtained from stool specimens or endoscopic samples, can be seen by microscopic examination of wet mounts at low magnification (100X). Permanent stained preparations are not recommended because the parasite, owing to its size and thickness, stains deeply and its internal structures then cannot be observed. Control: The most efficient control method is probably to educate the public about basic personal hygiene practices in areas in which contact between humans and swine is common. On pig farms, care should be taken to prevent animal waste from contaminating water used for drinking or irrigation, and manure should not be used as fertilizer on crops of vegetables that are eaten raw.
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