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Epiphyseal growth plate acts as a barrier to the spread of infection to the joint purchase 4mg singulair amex. May spread through Haversian and Volkmanns canal system to form a subperiosteal abscess (requires drainage) In adults buy singulair 10mg low cost, haematological spread less common discount singulair 5mg fast delivery. Also cancellous bone of vertebral bodies, may compression fracture Eg: sluggish blood flow easy thrombosis following trauma predisposes to infection (esp staph aureus) Pathology: Inflammatory response oedema compromise vascular supply necrosis spread of infection through cortices pus under periosteum shearing of periosteum further disruption to blood vessels Causative organisms: Under one year: staph aureus, strep agalactiae, E coli. Tb and Candida in high risk groups Complications: Spread of infection septicaemia, joint infection Fracture, abscess formation Chronic osteomyelitis in 5 20% of cases Subacute osteomyelitis: Focal rather than systemic response to infection. Differential includes bone tumour and stress fracture Chronic osteomyelitis: Usually delayed or inadequate treatment. Brodies abscess: abscess surrounded by sclerotic bone due to organisms of low virulence Treatment: sequestrum must be removed, may require repeated surgery. P aeruginosa Discitis: inflammation of the lumber disc, usually < 8 years Pelvic osteomyelitis: pain referred to the abdomen, buttock or leg. If lumber or thoracic vertebrae may hunchback deformity Pyogenic infections of the hand Usually history of trauma Paronychia: common infection of periungual tissues, usually by Staph Aureus Felon: deep infection of the pad of the finger. Usually Staph aureus following puncture wound Cellulitis: Strep Pyogenes infection Suppurative flexor tenosynovitis: Infection of flexor tendon sheaths Presentation: Swollen finger with painful motion. Sporotrichosis common Metabolic Bone Disease Osteoporosis: bone matrix reduced in amount but normally mineralised (ie bone mass due to loss of both protein matrix and Ca in equal proportions) Osteomalacia: normal amount of bone matrix but deficient mineralisation (ie Ca) Both will appear on x-ray as osteopenia (poverty of bone) Bone Metabolism Osteoblasts: Synthesise osteoid: normally this is a thin layer as the time between matrix deposition and mineralisation is short. Number of vertebral fractures and resulting disability unknown of those > 80 going to hospital with a fracture dont return to their previous residential status Pathogenesis: rd Bone is constantly turning over. Around menopause will loose 6 10% of bone mass, then returns to gradual decline Trabecular bone (20% of skeleton) turnover 8 times that of cortical bone (80% of skeleton). Use Singh Index of number of trabecular groups present (6 = good, 1 = bad) Also thinning and attenuation of the cortices Fracture risk a combination of density (which we can measure) and structure (which we cant) By the time they present with a fracture, osteoporosis is usually advanced Severity depends on: Peak bone mass. Also genetic and geographic predisposition Gross: enlarged bone with thick cortices Micro: irregular trabeculae with numerous osteoclasts and plump osteoblasts, jigsaw pattern Prognosis: Progressive bone deformity and micro fractures, anterior bowing of the femur. Arthritis due to deformed joints Osteosarcoma in 5 10% of those with severe disease Investigations: X-ray: early radiolucency. Rare to involve the extremities Types: Conventional: eg diaphysis or metaphysis of long bones. Grossly, pearly blue/white colour of cartilage Secondary to multiple exostosis in chondrodysplasia Dedifferentiated Treatment: tend to metastasise late (to lung and other bones) attempt local excision and replacement with prosthesis Prognosis: Grade 1 and 2 80 90% 5-year survival, Grade 3 (rare) 40% 5-year survival. Local or distant metastasis may occur up to 20 years later Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic Sarcoma) Proliferating malignant spindle-cell stroma producing osteoid After multiple myeloma, it is the most common primary malignant bone tumour 50 60% of cases are near the knee (either distal femur or proximal tibia) Types: Conventional osteosarcoma: Most common. Differential is chondrosarcoma suspect if large bone in an older patient, erosion of the cortex or suspicious histology Chondroblastoma: benign chondroid neoplasm at the end of long bones during teens Osteogenic tumours: produce osteoid: Osteoid osteomas: Rare. X-ray: radiolucent central zone surrounded by opaque sclerotic bone Osteoblastoma: Roughly speaking, an osteoid osteoma that is > 1. High local recurrence, rarely metastasises Fibrosarcoma Malignant tumour of fibroblasts (ie collagen producing cells) Occurs in any connective tissue but more common in the extremities and middle aged Fibrosarcoma of the bone is rare. Swelling, pain, pathological fracture Synoviosarcoma: Rare malignant tumour of the synovium, usually sharply circumscribed Rapid enlargement of the joint with pain. Can lead to Heberdens Nodes: marginal osteophytes at the base of the distal phalanx. Made by chrondrocytes Elasticity of cartilage mechanical stress causes deformation and stress on underlying bone. Inhibits folate metabolism give folic acid 5 10 mg/wkly, rare: irreversible liver toxin. Look for psoriasis and nail changes Reiters Syndrome Classic triad: urethritis, conjunctivitis and seronegative arthritis. Hyperaemic synovial membrane, but no panus or cartilage erosion (except if progressive). Biopsy is critical as treatment should continue for 2 years and therefore want to be sure of diagnosis Presumptive treatment with steroids. Immediate risk is blindness, but longer-term morbidity is due to steroid treatment! See Polymyalgia Rheumatica, page 281 Polyarterititis nodosa Affects young adults. Progresses to ulceration of nasal mucosa, perforation of the septum, heavy nose bleeds, granulomatous invasion of large bronchi bronchial stenosis Glomerulonephritis. Immunoflouresence is ive pauci-immune Treatment: steroids +/- cyclophosphamide 90% remission but frequent relapse. Microscopically: neutrophils, fibrinoid necrosis Takayasus arteritis: Aortic thickening with autoimmune granulomas = Pulseless Disease. Rare, in young females, hypertension, pain of affected artery Thromboangiitis Obliterans = Buergers disease. Also drugs, chemotherapy, renal failure) Plasma cell: eccentric nuclei, clock-face chromatin. If eccentric nucleus (clear area next to nucleus) in bone marrow multiple myeloma th th 286 4 and 5 Year Notes Neutrophil maturation: Blast No granules, fine chromatin Large Myelocytes Large round nucleus Large Metamyelocytes Large bean shaped nucleus Large Band Horse shoe shaped nucleus Smaller Neutrophil Segmented neutrophil, dense Smaller chromatin Normal differentiation: Neutrophils 80%, Lymphocytes 20% Lymphocyte: Toxic Changes (i. Strong indicator of bacterial infection Anaemia of Chronic Disease Causes: Chronic infections e. Due to: massive injury (release of thromboplastin), septicaemia (damage to endothelium), tumour cells breaking down 2. These are rare so index of suspicion Protein C or S deficiency Homocysteinaemia Secondary Causes: Malignancy Pregnancy and for 6 weeks afterwards: hypercoagulable, stasis, venous compression. If concurrent primary disorder then prophylaxis with sc heparin (warfarin contra-indicated) Stasis: immobilisation, surgery, local pressure Age Myeloproliferative disorders Antiphospholipid Syndrome (acquired, aggressive) Infection Trauma Data Interpretation Serum = plasma thats clotted: i. Splenectomy if massive Median survival = 8 15 years Secondary Causes of Polycythaemia Hypoxia: normal erythropoietin. In chronic there will be mature and immature blasts (myelocytes, promyelocytes and lymphocytes as well. Over half infections are low grade line infections If in doubt, treat empirically now. If infected will deteriorate quickly: Gentamycin + Ticarcillin (synthetic penicillin) Monotherapy (eg imipenem) +/- Vancomycin (for staph line sepsis) Causes of infection: Frequency Risk First Fever Staph +++ + haemolytic strep + ++ G ive bacilli + +++ Subsequent infections Staph +++ + Fungi ++ +++ Resistant G-ive + +++ Subsequent fevers: longer in hospital (hospital acquired infection), longer on antibiotics, etc Haematology and Immunology 301 If fever persists: Repeat the above exam and investigations but unlikely to add anything new Choices: Change antibiotics Consider antifungal: Amphotericin. Treat vertebral fractures with radiotherapy Presentation Bone pain, pathological fracture Anaemia Amyloidosis in 10 15%: macroglossia, cardiomegaly, peripheral neuropathy. Stain with Congo Red Renal complications: Presents with heavy proteinuria, also chronic renal failure due to infiltration th th 302 4 and 5 Year Notes Light chain nephropathy worse prognosis. Being mature, will have surface expression of immunoglobulins Epidemiology Commonest leukaemia: 25%. Minor exceptions can get them in spleen, gut, etc Differentiating lymphoma from leukaemia: was its origin in the bone marrow or lymph nodes? Warn the lab its coming Classification: Hodgkins vs non-Hodgkins: histological diagnosis only. Median onset age 50 Splenomegaly Wispy changes to cytoplasm of B cell Purine analogues 80% remission Data Interpretation: Leukaemia & Lymphoproliferative disorders Normal count but atypical lymphocytes viral infection. Adenosine deaminase deficiency Arrest in embryogenesis Primary Immunodeficiency Most single gene disorders: range of effects e. May include macular rash Debate about usefulness of early treatment Good evidence of value of prophylactic treatment (e. Future prevention If positive: repeat, confirmatory test organised, arrangement for counselling, support and specialist assessment Other Causes of Secondary Immunodeficiency Malignancy Drugs e. Eg Goodpastures Syndrome (Ab against glomerular basement membrane), haemolytic disease of the newborn. Due to lymphocytes and IgG (not IgE) Risk factors: Allergy predominates in young adults and children: while non-specific hypersensitivity is more common later in life Genetic Factors: One parent doubled risk of child having atopic disease. Both parents 4 times risk Early childhood factors important in subsequent development of allergic disease: High house dust mite/cat/pollen exposure in early months risk Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero/infancy risk Early life infections risk:? For adult, 60% chance next time Carry adrenaline until desensitisation (serial antigen shots 95% effective) Anaphylaxis: give 0. But also rises for parasites where in the world were they raised this could be a cause Indicate immune sensitisation only.
The purpose of these initiatives is to reduce buy singulair 4mg on line, curb or prevent the development of new antibiotic resistance and its spread buy 10 mg singulair with visa. In so doing buy 5mg singulair otc, the proper use of antibiotics and the observation of hygiene measures aimed at pre- venting infections are of particular short-term signicance. Because antibiotic resistance is a global phenomenon, the cooperation of academic research, the 56 Schwabe U & Paffrath D (2011). In addition to the consistent implementation and compliance with measures aimed at averting and preventing infections, the existing national and interna- tional strategies and initiatives urgently demand the development of new an- tibiotics in an effort to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria. Research and development of antibiotic substances continues to be the path that promises the greatest success for the effective treatment of future bacterial infections. Measures aimed at improving the quality of the evaluation of antibiotic resistance, including the effect of medicinal substances on the organ- ism (pharmacodynamics) and the specic growth conditions of bacteria at the site of the infection, are not taken into consideration. In addition, animal models using model bacteria have to be established for experiments with antibiotic therapies. The Federal Ofce for Consumer Protection and Food Safety is in charge of the national resistance monitoring of veterinary pathogens in Germany. However, these networks are not always representative, because a different number of in- stitutions are taking part in it from different countries. In the long term, it is im- portant to achieve a greater degree of representativeness and the continuous support of these networks is required. If successful, the established quality standards and experience could be transferred to other regions and other, in particular gram-negative, pathogens. Molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance The objective of molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance is to uncover the rationale of resistance development trends derived from surveillance systems and newly emerging antibiotic resistance. Resistant bacteria can be transferred to humans via food or direct contact with animals. As al- ready dened in the 2010 guidelines of the Federal Veterinary Association, an- tibiotics should generally only be used for therapeutic purposes in animals aside from a few justied exceptions rather than for prophylactic purposes. Antibiotic resistance emerging in connection with animal husbandry can im- pair the efcacy of important antibiotics in human medicine. Furthermore, it is imperative to monitor animal pathogenic bacteria and zoonotic parasites and to continue documenting resistance data such as has been done in Germany since 2001 within the scope of the national re- sistance monitoring programme GermVet conducted by the Federal Ofce for Consumer Protection and Food Safety. The awareness of antibiotic resistance and the mechanisms of their develop- ment and spread must also be heightened amongst employees in the agricultural and food industries with regular measures for continuing education. The effects of antibiotic use in animals on the development of resistance and the identication of the transmission pathways are already being discussed by a number of research networks. This indeed effectively pre- vents the breakout of the disease, but the development of antibiotic resistance is promoted. Streptomycin resistance genes were found on mobile genetic ele- ments that code for a phosphotransferase enzyme (StrA, StrB). The same genes have demonstrably been identied in 17 species of environmental bacteria and pathogenic organisms. The purpose is to create management models with the inclusion of all components, ranging from basic research and clinical interventions to healthcare-related economic evaluations. Leading European research insti- tutions have pooled their expertise in the Network of Excellence (NoE) Eu- roPathoGenomics. Within the scope of this initiative, researchers examined the biology and dy- namics of resistance, devised strategies for the prevention of resistance develop- ment and evaluated innovative treatment options. Despite these currently existing research structures, greater support is re- quired in view of the needs for urgent development of new antibiotics, involv- ing the longer-term establishment of research structures beyond national borders. In addition, the success of projects conducted in recent years should be evaluated and favourable approaches pursued further. From the academies point of view, research activities should cover a broad portfolio of topics and methods in order to combat the problem of an- tibiotic resistance from different angles. This new methodological approach has revolutionised biomed- ical sciences and is also important for the research in the eld of antibiotic re- sistance. To facilitate these advances, it is also necessary to establish powerful bio- informatics capacity. What matters most is the ability to analyse large sequence packages and address those functions playing an essential role in the analysis of changes in the genome of pathogenic microorganisms, in particular the analysis of point mutations. In this context, genome research offers direct access to the ex- ploration of virulence and resistance with respect to functional genome analysis. Gene expression under in vivo and in vitro conditions is another crucial fac- tor. This approach should be utilised for re- sistance research and for analysing the expression of resistance-relevant genes. This approach should be used more broadly to explore the spread of resistant pathogens. With re- spect to resistance research, it is necessary to track the expression of genes that are relevant for the metabolism (metabolomics) in order to evaluate new resis- tance mechanisms. Such methods can be used as basis for the development of new test systems that allow a faster and safer analysis of antibiotic resistance. This is attributed in part to poorly designed test systems and the use of low diversity substance libraries. For example, more than 25 gene clusters for the production of secondary metabolites were discovered with the genomic analysis of actinomycetes and myxobacteria. In this context, the possibility of analysing the genomes of host cells should equally be considered. Metabolic functions of the host cells could potentially represent new points of action for active ingredients. Its purpose is to replicate living processes in the laboratory and to establish (micro-) organisms with new properties. The synthesis of major metabolic determinants in the laboratory should be improved to help optimise the production of antibiotics. Examples involving the therapy of malaria (artemisinic acid) give rise to optimism with respect to the use of these methods. In the long term, it might be possible to study molecules with new properties in the laboratory, rep- resenting major potential for the development of new antibiotics. The development of new substance li- braries with a greater structural variety than many traditional libraries is one of the key conditions for the identication of these potential candidates. Interest- ing compounds were, for instance, isolated from actinomycetes in ocean sedi- ments. Other encouraging sources include terrestrial and marine symbiotic commu- nities as well as microbial genera that have yet to be explored. New research proj- ects are aimed at the investigation of bacterial symbionts of marine sponges, insects and fungi. However, natural materials derived from tropical plants also supply promising candidates. The systematic search for producers of potential antibiotic lead structures is therefore an alternative promising approach in the future to enable the continued battle against antibi- otic-resistant bacteria. The diversity of various ecological habitats also justies the conduct of such a search. In order to increase the potential of natural mate- rials and to nd suitable candidates in natural material libraries, the develop- ment of new and more effective screening methods is essential. Other active ingredients against antibiotic-resistant bacteria can potentially be found amongst pre-existing compounds. The recently introduced classes of antibiotics Oxazolidinones, Lipopeptides and Mutilines were discovered as early as two decades ago, but not developed further because of the many avail- able antibiotics that were still effective at the time. Improved screening systems as well as molecular biological production opti- misation of natural materials can both contribute to improving the yield of the search for new active ingredients. For example, the use of indicator strains car- rying several resistance determinants minimises the risk of the selection of known compounds and those that have already been deemed ineffective because of cross-resistance. Another worthwhile approach consists in the screening of dif- ferent substance libraries for antibacterial activity in whole-cell assays rather than in a target-directed preparation. The failure of many target-based programs made it doubtful whether novel compounds can be found at all with these types of search programs.
Lymphatic Drainage In the proximal third of the esophagus discount 4 mg singulair, lymphatics drain into the deep cervical lymph nodes cheap 5mg singulair with mastercard, whereas in the middle third 5 mg singulair with amex, drainage is into the superior and posterior mediastinal nodes. The distal-third lymphatics follow the left gastric artery to the gastric and celiac lymph nodes. Histology The wall of the esophagus consists of mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria. Unlike other areas of the gut, it does not have a distinct serosal covering, but is covered by a thin layer of loose connective tissue. Beneath the epithelium are the lamina propria and the longitudinally oriented muscularis mucosa. The submucosa contains connective tissue as well as lymphocytes, plasma cells and nerve cells (Meissners plexus). The muscularis propria consists of an inner circular and an outer longitudinal muscle layer. The circular muscle layer provides the sequential peristaltic contraction that propels the food bolus toward the stomach. Between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers lies another nerve plexus called the myenteric or Auerbachs plexus, which mediates much of the intrinsic nervous control of esophageal motor function. Physiology The major function of the esophagus is to propel swallowed food or fluid into the stomach. This is carried out by sequential or peristaltic contraction of the esophageal body in concert with appropriately timed relaxation of the upper and lower esophageal sphincters. The esophagus also clears any refluxed gastric contents back into the stomach and takes part in such reflex activities as vomiting and belching. Deglutition: Primary Peristalsis The act of deglutition is a complex reflex activity. Food is chewed, mixed with saliva and formed into an appropriately sized bolus before being thrust to the posterior pharynx by the tongue. Once the bolus reaches the posterior pharynx, receptors are activated that initiate the involuntary phase of deglutition. This involves the carefully sequenced contraction of myriad head and neck muscles. The food bolus is rapidly engulfed and pushed toward the esophagus by the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Simultaneously there is activation of muscles that lift the palate and close off and elevate the larynx in order to prevent misdirection of the bolus. These can be assessed manometrically using an intraluminal tube to measure pressures. Secondary peristalsis refers to a peristaltic sequence that occurs in response to distention of the esophagus. This is a localized peristaltic wave that usually begins just above First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. Esophageal Body Peristalsis There is a fundamental difference in the control mechanisms of peristalsis between the upper (striated-muscle) esophagus and the lower (smooth-muscle) esophagus. In the striated-muscle segment, peristalsis is produced by sequential firing of vagal lower motor neurons so that upper segments contract first and more aboral segments subsequently. In the smooth-muscle segment, the vagal preganglionic efferent fibers have some role in the aboral sequencing of contraction, but intrinsic neurons are also capable of evoking peristalsis independently of the extrinsic nervous system. Transection of vagal motor fibers to the esophagus in experimental animals will abolish primary peristalsis throughout the esophagus; however, in this setting, distention-induced or secondary peristalsis will be maintained in the smooth-muscle but not in the striated-muscle segment. In the smooth-muscle esophagus, however, the response to vagal efferent nerve stimulation is quite different, in that the onset of contractions is delayed relative to the onset of the stimulus. The latency to onset of the contraction increases in the more distal segments of the esophagus (i. This experimental observation indicates that intrinsic neuromuscular mechanisms exist and can mediate peristalsis on their own. Further evidence for this mechanism is found in studies where strips of esophageal circular smooth muscle are stimulated electrically in vitro. The latency to contraction after stimulation is shortest in the strips taken from the proximal smooth-muscle segment and increases progressively in the more distal strips. This latency gradient of contraction is clearly important in the production of esophageal peristalsis. Although the exact mechanisms are unclear, initial or deglutitive inhibition is important. With primary or secondary peristalsis, a wave of neurally mediated inhibition initially spreads rapidly down the esophagus. This is caused by the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter nitric oxide, which produces hyperpolarization (inhibition) of the circular smooth muscle. It is only after recovery from the initial hyperpolarization that esophageal muscle contraction (which is mediated primarily by cholinergic neurons) can occur. Thus, the duration of this initial inhibition is important with respect to the differential timing of the subsequent contraction. Derangements of the mechanisms behind this latency gradient lead to nonperistaltic contractions and dysphagia. Such derangements could result from problems with either the intrinsic neural mechanisms (enteric nervous system) or the central neuronal sequencing. Schematic representation of primary peristalsis as recorded by intraluminal manometry. Schematic representation of esophageal peristaltic contractions as evoked by swallowing and vagal efferent nerve stimulation. Swallowing evokes sequential esophageal contractions that pass smoothly from the striated- to the smooth-muscle segment. Electrical stimulation of the distal cut end of a vagus nerve, which simultaneously activates all vagal efferent fibers, evokes peristaltic contractions only in the smooth-muscle segment of the esophagus. In the striated-muscle esophagus, vagal stimulation causes simultaneous contractions that occur only during the period of stimulation. This demonstrates that the striated-muscle esophagus is dependent on central neuronal sequencing for its peristaltic contraction, whereas intrinsic neuronal mechanisms are capable of producing a persistaltic sequence in the smooth- muscle segment. This results in a pressure barrier that separates the esophagus from the stomach and serves to prevent reflux of gastric contents up into the esophagus. Extrinsic innervation as well as circulating hormones can modify the resting tone; however, the muscle fibers themselves have inherent properties that result in their being tonically contracted. The predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter released from these intrinsic neurons is nitric oxide. Dysphagia The sensation of food sticking during swallowing is a manifestation of impaired transit of food through the mouth, pharynx or esophagus. It is important to differentiate oropharyngeal (transfer) dysphagia from esophageal dysphagia. If the patient has problems getting the bolus out of the mouth, then one can be certain of an oropharyngeal cause; if the food sticks retrosternally, an esophageal cause is indicated. Some patients, however, will sense food sticking at the level of the suprasternal notch when the actual obstruction is the distal esophagus. Thus, it can be difficult to determine the site of the problem when patients refer their dysphagia to the suprasternal notch or throat area. With these patients it is important to elicit any ancillary symptoms of oropharyngeal-type dysphagia, such as choking or nasal regurgitation. It may also be helpful to observe the patient swallowing in an attempt to determine the timing of the symptom; with esophageal dysphagia referred to the suprasternal notch, the sensation of dysphagia onsets several seconds after swallowing begins. Dysphagia that is episodic and occurs with both liquids and solids from the outset suggests a motor disorder, whereas when the dysphagia is initially for solids such as meat and bread, and then progresses with time to semisolids and liquids, one should suspect a structural cause (e. If such a progression is rapid and associated with significant weight loss, a malignant stricture is suspected. When the pain is retrosternal, one should suspect nonreflux-induced forms of esophagitis, such as infection, radiation or pill-induced (chemical) injury. It may be precipitated by bending over or lying down, and usually begins shortly after consuming certain foods or beverages.
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