Some foot and leg problems may be associ- ated with continuous perching on hard surfaces purchase voltaren 100mg without prescription, es- pecially in cold climates where chilling of the feet or frostbite may occur 50mg voltaren with amex. Nest Boxes Nest boxes should be placed in or on the enclosure in such a way as to allow easy and frequent examina- tion buy 50mg voltaren otc. Placing nest boxes on the same end as the feeding and watering station allows simultaneous feeding and nest box examination (Figure 2. Nest boxes must be water- bottle should be used during the transition phase to bottles. Changes in feeding or watering techniques are best performed after, not before or during the breeding season. The use of potting soil, corn cob bedding, eucalyptus leaves or hay may contribute to fungal growth. There is a high incidence of cancer in laboratory rodents that are maintained on pine or cedar shavings. Assuming that long-term exposure to these nesting materials could have adverse effects on companion birds, it is best to use large hardwood or aspen chips in the nest box (Figure 2. Health Maintenance Program The health maintenance program should be designed to address problems common in a species as well as endemic problems for a particular aviary. In extremely destructive birds, are high in the same geographic regions, and suscep- metal nest boxes that are protected from extremes in temperature tible species of birds should be protected from poxvi- are superior to wooden or plastic boxes. This wooden nest box from a pair of prolific Umbrella Cockatoos was replaced with a metal rus by vaccination. Physical examinations and aviary repairs should be planned for the non-breeding season, typically in the fall. Good hygiene is vital to good health; however, the level of hygiene must be balanced with the level of Nest boxes may be constructed of many materials, disturbance that it creates. Pressure- should be easy to clean with minimal labor, cost and treated plywood contains numerous toxins and disturbances (which, in the aviary, can reduce the should not be used to construct nest boxes. Fre- nest box with wire will decrease chewing damage; quent disinfection of enclosures is not necessary if however, chewed wires can produce dangerous pro- birds are healthy, organic debris is not allowed to jections that can cause injuries to the chicks or adults build up in the enclosure and the food and water (Figure 2. All open food containers should be stored in sealable containers to prevent infes- tation by flies, roaches or rodents. Unopened food containers should be stored in a dry, cool environment (courtesy of Apalachee River Aviary). In addition, the dry, powdered formula used for neonates should also be stored in the freezer in a sealed container (courtesy of Apalachee River Aviary). Exceptional food hygiene is vital to prevent the machine to grind and blend vegetables allows for spread of food-borne pathogens or the spoilage of easy removal of uneaten food by simply washing the moist foods within an enclosure. Food Birds should have potable, fresh water provided in a stuffs have been frequently blamed for flock out- clean bowl daily. In reality, formulated drinking water; they oxidize rapidly and provide a foods designed for companion birds are usually of growth media for bacteria and fungus. Water should excellent quality, and bacterial contamination is be collected directly from a tap that is run for 30-45 more likely to occur from improper food handling seconds before filling a container. Automatic watering systems comparison, foods designed for gallinaceous birds reduce labor, ensure that birds have a clean fresh (eg, chick starter, chicken scratch) frequently have supply of water at all times and prevent food or fecal large numbers of gram-negative pathogens and contamination of the water supply. Water should be should not be used in association with companion flushed through the lines daily as part of the mainte- birds. Weekly flushing of water lines with with soft or fresh foods in which spoilage is rapid hypochlorite or iodophores is necessary to keep the (Figure 2. Automatic watering nutritious and are thought to stimulate breeding by systems should be checked daily to ensure that they many aviculturists. Mortality levels could be high of bacterial or fungal pathogens, and they should be if a watering system fails and it is not detected avoided or rinsed thoroughly with dilute hypochlo- immediately. Fruits or vegetables that remain on the floor of in the management of infectious diseases. Realisti- an enclosure can be a source of bacterial and fungal cally, they are probably of minimal value as long as pathogens and should be removed daily, especially in aviary personnel are not entering flight enclosures. The veterinarian must take precautions when going from one premise to another to avoid transmission of pathogens on contaminated foot wear. Having a pair of rubber boots that remain on each premise is the best way to prevent disease transmission. Any equipment that comes in contact with a bird should be disinfected, rinsed and thoroughly dried before it is used again. Air conditioners and ventilation systems may serve as foci for bacterial or fungal growth in an indoor facility. Use of a commercial dish-washer infections were traced to an air conditioner filter that is an excellent way to maintain bowl hygiene in larger facilities. Nest boxes should, at a mini- Food and water bowls should be made of stainless mum, be thoroughly cleaned on an annual basis, and steel, hard plastic or crockery and should be washed nest material should be changed after each clutch if daily. Bowls can be washed in soap and water and chicks were allowed to hatch in the nest. If cleaned as a group, constructed of wood or other porous material should the bowls should be disinfected (with Clorox) before be destroyed if the inhabitants develop a viral or reuse (Table 2. Embryos may die in the shell or can be set up as follows: detergent and hot water, septicemic chicks may occur if an egg becomes moist rinse, immersion for at least 30 minutes in a properly in the nest box, allowing bacterial agents to pass diluted disinfectant solution (Clorox), a second rinse through the shell pores. A commercial dishwasher is a viable alternative to hand-washing techniques as Disinfectants: All aviary facilities should be clean long as organic debris can be adequately removed and sanitary. Mycobacterium Ineffective Ineffective Effective Ineffective Chlamydia – Recommended – – Candida – – Effective Less effective If organic debris present Ineffective Ineffective Less effective Less effective All disinfectants are toxic and should be used in a conservative fashion for the specific purpose of preventing exposure to infectious agents. The least toxic agent that will effectively meet the disinfecting needs should be chosen. In most cases, a 5% dilution of sodium hypochlorite is the safest and most efficacious with the least potential for leaving toxic residues. Materials should always be cleaned before they are disinfected, because few disinfectants are effective in the presence of organic debris. Birds should not come in direct contact with disinfectants, and it is best if they are not exposed to disinfectant fumes as well. Either decreasing the pH or increasing the temperature will increase the efficacy of Clorox. As a general disinfectant, bleach is mixed at a rate of 200 mls/4 liters of water. The constant use of powerful constructing a facility that discourages nesting in or disinfectants in the absence of a disease threat is not around the aviary. For example, in outdoor aviaries, beneficial, and continuous contact with these chemi- concrete slabs are frequently used to provide addi- cals can be detrimental to the birds and aviary per- tional cleanliness under suspended cages; however, sonnel. Chlorine bleach should be used only in well rats almost invariably tunnel and nest under these ventilated areas, and a 5% solution is effective for slabs. Bait boxes should be Insects: Insects and rodents are potential vectors for used as needed and with caution. They also may irritate and with small quantities of ground meat are particularly disturb the breeding birds. Control of roaches, especially in and consume small birds, but will rarely attack larger outdoor facilities in southern coastal climates, is chal- Psittaciformes. Insecticides alone are usu- birds (canaries, finches, budgerigars, lovebirds) out- ally not effective and are potentially dangerous to the doors, the enclosure should be constructed with small birds. Biological control of roaches is preferable to wire or screen to prevent entry of snakes. Insectivorous animals (gecko liz- ards or chickens) can be used to consume the insects. The use of flightless silky chickens is recommended to prevent the chickens from roosting on the aviary enclosures. Evaluating and Treating Flock Problems Ants can transmit some parasites such as the prov- entricular worm Dispharynx. Ants may reduce food consumption by swarming food bowls or may build nests in the nest boxes.
Topical medications voltaren 50 mg free shipping, particularly steroids generic voltaren 100mg amex, the infected birds had neurologic signs characterized must be applied cautiously to small birds to prevent by circling and head tremors cheap voltaren 50mg otc. Horner’s syndrome was suggested as a diagnosis in one bird in which a unilateral ptosis and Intraocular Tumors mild miosis ameliorated by topical phenylephrine Intraocular tumors are rare in birds. Many companion birds can survive remarkably well with little or no vision, Neurophthalmology and Central Blindness as has been noted with cockatiels with cryptophthal- mos11 and Bobwhite Quail with dense bilateral cata- Blindness in birds may be caused by opacity of the racts;44 however, blindness can be very debilitating in visual media, retinal lesions or central neurologic disease. In cases where no obvious ocular cause of some smaller Passeriformes where flying from perch blindness can be observed, an electroretinogram can to perch is behaviorally important. Enucleation is frequently necessary in birds because Causes of central blindness may include cataracts, of trauma, non-responsive inflammation or tumors. Space-occupying brain lesions, particularly pituitary References and Suggested Reading 1. J Am Vet et al: Three cases of infection by spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona in budgerigars. Aviculture and veterinary problems vestigations of visual defects in rap- thalmology. A punctate or grid effective in controlling the uveitis in this keratotomy to restore normal epitheliza- case (courtesy of S. These changes are charac- responded to treatment with topical keto- teristic of uveitis not complicated by hy- conazole (courtesy of S. Phitisis bulbi with tion with topical steroid medication was wrinkling of the lid margins are also evi- slow and several synechiae remained. In this case, the contralateral An adult male cockatiel was presented with a three-week history of ocular discharge eye was unaffected, the bird’s behavior was normal and surgical removal of the and scratching of the face. A severe pan- ophthalmitis was noted on physical exami- cataract was not attempted (courtesy of K. The bird was tillating appearance of the cataract, indi- placed on systemic and ophthalmic antibi- cating some resorption. Extracapsular enucleation was performed six days after cataract extraction was performed and the initial presentation. Avian Pathol 15:687-695, Am Vet Med Assoc 183:1232-1233, men einer konjuntivitis unbekannter 53. J Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) he avian heart is divided into four complete chambers and is located midway in the tho- racic cavity in an indention in the sternum C H A P T E R T 50,91 parallel to the long axis of the body. The left ventricle is heavily walled and is about two to three times thicker than 27 the right. The right ventricle works as a volume pump and responds rapidly to an increased workload by dilation and hypertrophy. Rigor mortis may not occur if severe degenerative disease of the myocardium is present. The normal pericardial sac is clear and in contact with the epicardium circumferentially and the mediasti- nal pleura dorsally (see Color 13). A normal bird should have a small quantity of clear to slightly yellow fluid in the pericardial sac (see Color 14). Ritchie their internal structure is simple, lacking the T-tu- bules found in mammals. The small surface area precludes the need for a complex T-tubule system for excitation to occur. The increased cardiac output requires a higher cally separates the atria from the ventricles by pene- arterial pressure to produce higher blood flow rates. There are also fibers running to in general have a bigger heart than larger birds. Electrical conduction in Purkinje fibers is The aorta in birds is derived embryologically from about five times faster than in normal cardiac muscle the right fourth arterial arch and right dorsal aorta cells and hence the conduction system plays an im- and therefore the ascending aorta curves to the right portant role in regulating myocardial contraction. This structure can After transmission of the electrical impulses through be clearly seen radiographically on a ventrodorsal the ventricular conduction system, all areas of the projection. Blood is returned to the heart from the ventricles are activated in a coordinated fashion. Birds have a mean electrical axis that is negative, while the mean electrical axis in dogs is positive. This difference can be explained by the fact that in birds, the depolarization wave of the ventricles begins subepicardially and spreads through the myocar- dium to the endocardium, while in the dog, depolari- Evaluating the Avian Heart zation of the ventricles starts subendocardially. Electrical impulses are transported 1726 mixed avian species necropsied in one zoologi- along ordinary muscle fibers in the interatrial sep- cal collection. Subtle interatrial septum or the caudodorsal part of the murmurs are easiest to detect when birds are under interventricular septum. Auscultation of the heart can best be per- cardiovascular shunt as the cause of severe dyspnea formed on the left and right ventral thorax. The proce- or pulmonary fluid accumulation may cause muffled dure is performed by injecting a bolus dose of con- lung sounds or rales when a bird is auscultated over trast medium into the catheterized basilic vein. Of the imaging techniques, echocardiograms gener- Mild stress, such as occurs in the veterinary exami- ally provide the most diagnostic information. Echo- nation room or following restraint, may cause a bird’s cardiography was used successfully to detect valvu- heart rate to increase substantially (two to three lar endocarditis on the aortic valve of a four-year-old times normal). Staphylo- stress factors, drug exposure, toxins, diet, percent coccus was isolated from the vegetative lesion, which body fat and blood pressure can all alter the avian was seen as a large mass using this technique. As a rule, the heart rate in a bird that is small birds, the echocardiographic image of the heart being restrained is higher than the heart rate ob- is best obtained by sweeping through the liver. Color tained in the same bird if the rate had been deter- flow doppler was used to demonstrate mitral regur- mined using telemetry. Radiographic detection of cardiovascular abnormali- ties may be difficult, although an enlarged cardiac It was demonstrated in 1949 that the negative mean silhouette or microcardia can often be visualized. Other radiographic changes that suggest cardiac disease include congestion of Despite its great clinical applicability, electrocardiog- pulmonary vessels, pulmonary edema, pleural effu- raphy has received relatively little attention from sion, hepatomegaly and ascites. This might be due to the scarcity of electrocardiographic refer- Non-selective angiocardiography with rapid se- ence values in companion birds. To the authors’ quence serial radiographs has been used to confirm knowledge these values have been established only impaired cardiac function in a racing pigeon (Figure in racing pigeons, African Grey Parrots and Amazon 27. The eyes were glazed and partially closed, the ulnar vein refill time was two seconds, and the skin on the toes would stay elevated for several seconds when pinched. The lateral radiograph indicated microcardia (indicative of dehydration) and gaseous dis- tention of the proventriculus (open arrows), which is common in birds that are anesthetized or are severely dyspneic. A single rapid intravenous bolus of contrast agent was administered via a catheter into the cutaneous ulnar vein of a normal Green-winged Macaw. The axillary vein (arrow), cranial vena cava (c), cardiac chambers and pulmonary arteries (open arrows) are clearly visible. Note that contrast media is also present in the kidneys (courtesy of Marjorie McMillan). Regardless of the type of electrocardiograph used, it Electrocardiography may be useful for detecting car- must be able to run electrocardiograms at a paper diac enlargement from hypertrophy of any of the four speed of at least 100 mm/s. Electrocardiography is indispen- rapid that inspecting and measuring the tracing is sable for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac ar- less accurate at slower speeds. If the complexes When evaluating cardiac enlargement it is best to are so large that they exceed the edge of the tracing compare the electrocardiographic findings with those paper, the sensitivity should be halved. Metabolic, cardiac, neurologic and systemic thetized racing pigeon that is restrained in an up- diseases that produce toxemia can cause one or all of right position, while in parrots, isoflurane anesthesia these clinical changes. When comparing anesthetized and be used also to monitor heart rate and rhythm in an unanesthetized parrots, only the median heart rate anesthetized patient. Needle electrodes placed subcutaneously are superior to alligator clips for use in avian patients. The P-wave signifies that the atria have depolarized, causing contraction and ejection of their complement of blood into the ventricles. In dogs, this is caused by right atrial hypertrophy and is called auricular T-wave or Ta-wave. If the vector runs perpendicular sent, it is often elevated above the baseline (maxi- to a lead, that lead will record either no deflection or mum 0. This malian species, these changes are associated with is called an isoelectric lead. When the electrocardiograph is recorded at Diagnose primary heart disease a paper speed of 100 mm/s, each small box on the Monitor therapy of heart disease horizontal is 0.
Additionally buy voltaren 100 mg on-line, the developing circulatory system soaked in warm buy generic voltaren 50mg, dilute cheap voltaren 100 mg on-line, povidone-iodine solution and and muscle mass of neonates make them more sus- bandaged. Their skin tion and antibiotic ointments help soften and prevent is friable and sensitive, so all forms of external coap- 8 reformation of the annular ring. Toe constrictions can often be pre- The shoe should be made to properly fit the foot of the vented by keeping susceptible species on non-desic- affected individual with a notch in the shoe into cating surfaces and in brooders where the humidity which each toenail will be placed. Commercial forced air made, the foot is placed in the shoe and each digit is brooders with rapid air changes tend to desiccate the taped into a normal position using very thin strips of chicks and should be avoided. The plantar aspect of each Stifle luxation or subluxation in both juvenile and adult birds has been reported. A second piece of hy- occur when a bird gets a leg caught in the enclosure droactive dressing is applied dorsally to sandwich the and struggles to free itself. This mate- stifles may also occur and appear to be particularly rial is especially appropriate as it is soft, unlikely to common in cockatiels (Figure 30. The embryo internally pipped An eight-week-old Moluccan Cockatoo was presented for evaluation of a valgus de- three days earlier than anticipated and died the day after entering the air cell. The embryo weighed The defect was managed conservatively by placing the bird in a vertical container; 32 g (the average weight for chicks from this pair was 22 g) and was considered to be rolled towels positioned around the edges supported the bird in a continuous stand- large for the egg (fetal monster). Physical therapy was per- formed on the leg for ten minutes at each not indicate the presence of bacteria. The bird was presented at seven weeks of age for a corrective dome osteo- ties in any tissues. Development is rapid in large psit- tacine chicks, like this five-week-old Um- several digits. This neonate will grow from a hatching weight of 18 g to its adult Examination of the constrictions with a dissecting microscope failed to demon- size of 600 g in eight to ten weeks. In any nate has an over-zealous feeding response crop burn, the wounds should be treated or if the feeder has a rough, careless feeding conservatively, and surgical correction technique. Once the wall has been pene- should be delayed as long as possible for trated, food will be deposited in the subcu- differentiation to occur between damaged taneous tissues causing severe cellulitis. The bird was placed on ment, flushing of the involved tissues and smaller feedings provided more frequently systemic antimicrobial therapy. A large scab photograph, a feeding tube has been placed formed over the crop and caudal esophagus in the esophagus to demonstrate the loca- over a ten-day to two-week period. The parents had a granulation tissue was available to facili- broad assortment of soft foods available, tate repair. The wound was thoroughly including soaked monkey biscuit andmixed cleansed and the crop was bluntly sepa- vegetables. The crop and skin were geal and ingluvial impaction after being fed closed in separate layers as described in pieces of wood chips and dirt from the sub- Chapter 41. The yolk sac was the most affected of a group of 12 psit- had not started to absorb. The umbilicus tacine neonates that were having varied was dry and considered to be normal. Bile clinical problems associated with poor pigment accumulations were noted on the weight gain and failure to thrive. The crop was distended with a Mild crop burns may be recognized clini- doughy, solid mass. The bird died shortly cally as swelling, erythema and edema of after presentation despite extensive sup- the crop and esophagus. The In some cases, full-thickness crop and skin neonates in this nursery were fed from a burns may cause relatively small fistulas single syringe with a single food supply that are easy to repair (see Chapter 41) that was mixed in the morning and main- (courtesy of Elizabeth Hillyer). This defect is best corrected early when physical therapy or beak trimming procedures can be effective in resolving the problem. The nal center at the base of the beak is damaged, the tip knee should be fixed in a slightly flexed position. Tolerance of the device is variable and it should be Birds with this condition will require frequent beak left in place for 30-40 days in large birds and 21 days trims, as the mandibular beak will continue to grow in smaller species. Lateral Beak Deviation (Scissors Beak) Lateral deviation of the upper beak is most often Beak Problems diagnosed in macaws but also occurs in other psittac- ine birds (Figure 30. In most cases, it does not Beak Trauma interfere with eating, but it is unsightly. The etiology Chicks may damage their own or a sibling’s beak is unknown and may be multifactorial. Suggested when they lock beaks and pump against each other, causes include low or unbalanced calcium in the diet, or if they pump against the brooder container. Topical am- problems and alterations in the mandibular occlusal photericin B cream can be applied if a secondary surface. Occasionally the beak Early recognition is critical for easy and successful itself is damaged, creating an indentation through correction. The wound should be debrided, the lower beak should be trimmed in a ramp-like flushed with saline, dried, and then filled with a fashion to encourage the upper beak to slide over to dental acrylic. Differences in the indented, it should be elevated to the level of the rest height of the occlusal surfaces of the mandibular of the beak with a bent needle before applying the beak should be corrected, and digital pressure should acrylic patch. The acrylic patch will eventually be applied to the beak two to four times daily to loosen as granulation tissue fills the wound. Correction of severe beak deformities in older of the Mandible of Macaw Beaks birds is seldom complete, but substantial improve- An elongated, shovel-like deformity of the mandible ment can be made. If noted before the beak Mandibular prognathism (underbite), in which the calcifies, it can be corrected by trimming beak tissue upper beak tucks within the lower, is seen primarily from the lateral walls and manually reshaping the in cockatoos (Figure 30. It has been suggested that the parent bird may hook the maxilla during feeding and Traumatic Subluxation of the Premaxilla-frontal Joint help extend it, an event that may not occur during hand-feeding. If the beak is still soft, physical therapy usually be displaced dorsally, and fractures of the may correct the condition. It is can be used at each feeding to apply traction and extremely painful, and the bird should be anesthe- extend the maxillary beak rostrally. The cartilagi- tized while the beak is placed back in a normal nous extensions should be clipped if they are con- position (see Chapter 42). If the beak is calcified, physical therapy ported to heal well, although some may need to be hand fed for a few days. A few stress bars in an otherwise normal bird are of only temporary cosmetic concern. Large numbers of stress bars may indicate malnutrition, stunting or a disease problem. Determining the cause of stress bars is often difficult because they represent a problem that occurred when the feather was developing. The problem had been pre- Occluded Ear Openings sent since hatching, and the aviculturist had been incorrectly told that this was normal and would resolve with age. If corrected from Occlusions of the external openings of the ears are hatching, this problem can be resolved by gently pulling the upper most often seen in macaws, (especially Military Ma- beak forward and placing it over the lower beak for about ten caws). If allowed to progress, as in this cockatoo, repair requires surgical intervention (see Chapter 42). This material should be removed by curettage and flushing, cultured for bacteria and fungus, and the ear treated with appropriate topical and systemic antibiotics. Eyelid Malformation Malformation of the eyelids resulting in a narrow aperture is occasionally seen in cockatiels. The bird was being fed a homemade diet with a baby cereal base that was nutritionally reported cases, the aperture closed following treat- deficient. If the canal fails to open, it should be explored with blunt forceps and an opening surgically created if necessary. If a small hole is found, it can often be enlarged by stretching it with the tips of a pair of hemostats. Loxahatchee, Avicultu- Jean Delacour/Intl Foundation for hepatic biliary cyst in a congo African of Cage and Aviary Birds 2nd ed. J Am Vet rum biochemical reference intervals an African grey parrot and an um- Avian Vet 1990, 12-24. J Zoo Wildlife Med rum biochemical reference intervals rots: Methodology and expected 1986, pp 333-340. Clubb K, Clubb S: Management of Breeding and Research Center, 1992, Medicine 1:11-21, 1992. The diet of every avian patient should be carefully evaluated, even if the bird appears clinically to be well nourished.
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