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Shirshov mentioned insuffcient law enforcement interest in the problem but concluded discount 17.5 mg zestoretic amex, “The legislation is inadequate discount 17.5 mg zestoretic with visa. As Box 4-5 mentions discount zestoretic 17.5 mg otc, perpetrators who are caught falsifying medicine are punished leniently in some countries (Kyriacos et al. In the United States, the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act dictates a penalty of 1 year in prison, a fne of no more than $1,000, or both (Donaldson, 2010). Even repeat offenders are punished with no more than 3 years in prison or a fne of $10,000 (Donaldson, 2010). Considering that the proft margin for falsifed drugs runs in the billions, the risk-to-proft Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. He ofered more than 40 products including Viagra, Zoloft, Lipitor, Cialis, and Xanax (Kake. His customer service call center was in the Philippines; he paid his employees through wire transfers from Costa Rica, the Philippines, and the United States. Calvelo was sentenced to 48 months in prison and, as part of his plea, agreed to pay $1. Table 4-5 shows the penalties for falsifying medi- cines in a selection of countries. Tables 4-6 and 4-7 show penalties for patent and trademark infringement, which are dealt with more severely in some countries. Stricter and more consistent penalties could do much to fght the public health crime of producing and trading fake medicines. Chapter 7 discusses this solution in more detail, describing how a global code of practice could encourage consistent strict minimum punishments for these offenses. Much as poor-quality drugs are often both falsifed and sub- standard, some potentiating factors encourage both kinds of problems. The high demand and erratic supply of drugs, weak regulatory systems, and lack of political will contribute to the trade on both falsifed and substandard drugs. Expense and Scarcity Medicines are what economists describe as a comparatively inelastic good (Arnold, 2008); changes in the unit price of the medicine have pro- portionately little effect on the demand (Siminski, 2011). Price inelastic- ity, combined with a high relative price, make medicines a major expense for patients around the world. In the United States, health expenditures on medicine rise sharply in middle life and average between $1,000 and Key Findings and Conclusions • The demand for medicines is relatively consistent, though the sup- ply is not. A more straightforward registration and application process would reduce burdens on industry and regulators. Regulators in low- and middle-income coun- tries need training, equipment, and technology, as well as guidelines for strategic decisions about what to invest in frst. Substan- dard drug production at the New England Compounding Center happened because of insufcient clarity between state and national responsibilities. Patients and providers need accurate information about the risks, communicated in way that empowers them to take reasonable precautions to protect their safety. The cost of medicine is even more of a burden in low- and middle-income countries, where it accounts for 20-60 percent of health spending, and 90 percent of the population pays for medicine out-of-pocket (Cameron et al. Some- times the supply falters because of shortages in the raw materials, as in 2004 when increased demand for artemisinin, combined with a poor Artemesia annua harvest, drove up the price and led to stock-outs (Kindermans et al. In the United States, for example, manufacturers sometimes stop producing products with low proft margins, such as sterile injectables—inexpensive products that are complicated to make (Hoffman, 2012). Manufacturers also can lose interest in a drug after its patent expires, when revenues from the product drop (Hoffman, 2012). Although the United States has a more stable drug supply than most devel- oping countries, there have been regular shortages for the past 15 years, es- pecially among injectables, cancer drugs, and antibiotics (Hoffman, 2012). Figure 4-3 shows that although private-sector outlets have a higher percentage of drugs available than public-sector ones, there is still a great deal of unmet need. A month’s course of the lowest-priced generic ulcer medication, for example, is still more than 3 days’ wages for a low-paid government worker in much of Africa, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East (Cameron et al. Reducing the costs and increasing the availability of medicines would remove some of the fnancial incentive to produce and procure falsifed and substandard medicines. If patients had a plentiful supply of reliable, affordable medicines, there would be less need to shop at unregulated gray markets. For generic manufacturers, companies that generally run on low margins, the costs of proving bioequivalence and preparing a manufacturer’s dossier for regula- tory review can be prohibitive to market entry (Lionberger, 2008). Different regulatory authorities have different, often widely divergent, requirements for establishing bioequivalence (Mastan et al. Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs 164 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. The committee believes this format could be useful to regulators and gener- ics companies in low- and middle-income countries. Harmonized applications also give regulators a common format to discuss their product registration process. Like sharing inspections and other harmonization efforts, the use of the common document increases effciency and promotes a common language among regulators. Recommendation 4-3: Regulatory authorities in low- and middle- income countries should use the International Conference on Harmoni- sation Common Technical Document format for product registration to better harmonize their procedures and reduce application costs for manufacturers. To the same end, they should also conduct joint inspec- tions and use a common inspection report. A more robust generic drug market in low- and middle-income coun- tries could help prevent the drug shortages and price spikes that encourage the sale of poor-quality products. Regulatory authorities can work to better harmonize their procedures, thereby improving their own effciency and reducing barriers to market entry for good-quality generics manufacturers. Regulators also reap a spillover beneft of more convergent regulatory systems without negotiating cumbersome mutual recognition agreements. The Singaporean drugs regulatory authority has promoted the common format, citing its ease of use and the way it facilitates sharing information among other regula- tors in the region (Poh, 2011). Similarly, Southeast Asian companies beneft Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Bioequivalence testing also requires sophisticated laborato- ries that are not available in many countries. This baseline cost to generic companies does not include several person-months of staff costs for revis- ing registration application data into a new dossier. The costs of market authorization are prohibitively expensive, especially for entry into a small country’s market. When the overwhelmed regulatory authority will allow it, companies avoid the expense by submitting no proof of bioavailability; others falsify bioavailability data (Silverman, 2011). Evidence suggests that these high costs keep generics companies out of the market and increase costs to the consumer (Mastan et al. A 1996 industry study estimated that converting applications took between 2 and 10 months and signifcant staff time and expense (Molzon, 2009). Differ- ent standards for bioequivalence assessment also encourage the problem of widely divergent national drug quality standards (Mastan et al. If the application and registration process were more straightforward then more good-faith companies could enter the market, increasing the sup- ply of reliable drugs and controlling costs. The committee also believes that a consistent use of the common registration format could further the cause of regulatory harmonization, which would improve the drug regulatory systems in low- and middle-income countries. Harmonization also controls the burdens regulation puts on manufacturers; shared inspections are more effcient and less disruptive to industry. Generics companies, which gener- ally have fewer staff than innovator companies, are disproportionately disturbed by frequent inspections. Weak Regulatory Systems A competitive generics market benefts consumers, as does a rigorous and unpredictable inspection regime (Mackintosh et al. In many developing countries, lack of confdence in the regulatory system breeds low enthusiasm for generic medicines (Hassali et al. An infux of generic medicines will only reduce the circulation in falsifed and substandard drugs when there is a system to assure consumers of medicines quality. In their review of policy actions to promote generic medicines, Kaplan and colleagues conclude that a functioning medicines regulatory Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.
Rem ark It is very im portant to protect this form ulation from light to avoid the isom erization and degradation of tretinoin zestoretic 17.5mg lowest price. M anufacturing (Direct com pression) M ix all com ponents buy cheap zestoretic 17.5mg, pass through a sieve and press with low com pres- sion force generic 17.5mg zestoretic. Rem ark If the content uniform ity does not m eet the requirem ents it would be recom m ended to prepare a prem ix of the active ingredient with a sm all part of the Ludipress or with lactose m onohydrate before m ixing with the other com ponents of the form ulation. M anufacturing (Direct com pression) M ix all com ponents, pass through a sieve and press with very low com pression force. Rem ark If the content uniform ity does not m eet the requirem ents it would be recom m ended to prepare a prem ix of the active ingredient with a sm all part of the Ludipress or with lactose m onohydrate before m ixing with the other com ponents of the form ulation. Rem ark The addition of salts like sodium chloride would be possible but the consistency could be changed by such m odification. After the am poules have been heat-sterilized, they should be shaken for a short tim e, while they are still hot, to elim inate any separation of the phases that m ay have occurred. Physical stability (20–25 °C, protected from light) No change of the clarity after som e days. Rem ark Perhaps it would be recom m endable to use an other m agnesium salt instead of the sulfate to avoid any precipitation of calcium sulfate during storage. After the am poules have been heat-sterilized, they should be shaken for a short tim e, while they are still hot, to elim inate any separation of the phases that m ay have occurred. Physical stability (20–25 °C, protected from light) No change of the appearance during 2 years. Chem ical stability of vitam in A (2 years, protected from light) Room tem perature: 9% loss after 1 year, 16% loss after 2 years. After the am poules have been sterilized, they should be briefly shaken whilst they are still hot, to elim inate any separation of the phases. Properties of the em ulsion Pale yellow m ilky, stable em ulsion with a viscosity of less than 30 m Pa ·s. Chem ical stability of vitam in A (Stress test at 40°C) 1 M onth 2 M onths 3 M onths Vitam in A content 92% 86% 81% 5. If the obtained yellow solution is not com pletely clear heat for som e m inutes m ore at 65 °C. After the am poules have been heat-sterilized, they should be shaken for a short tim e, while they are still hot, to elim inate any separation of the phases that m ay have occurred. Add very slowly the solution of the preservative in water, also heated to 65°C, with vigorous stirring. Heat the solution of the preservative in water to the sam e tem perature and add it slowly to the well stirred vitam in m ixture. After the am poules have been heat-sterilized, they should be shaken for a short tim e, while they are still hot, to elim inate any separation of the phases that m ay have occured. Physical stability (20–25 °C, protected from light) No change was observed during 1 year. Rem arks It m ust be tested if the ethanol concentration has a sufficient preserva- tive efficiency. After the am poules have been heat-sterilized, they should be shaken for a short tim e, while they are still hot, to elim inate any separation of the phases that m ay have occured. M anufacturing Heat the m ixture I to about 65 °C, stir very well and add slowly the hot water (65 °C). Properties of the solutions Yellow clear or slightly opalescent solutions of low viscosity. Physical stability (20–25 °C, protected from light) No change of clarity and colour after 1 year. After the am poules have been heat-sterilized, they should be shaken for a short tim e, while they are still hot, to elim inate any separation of the phases that m ay have occurred. M anufacturing Dissolve butylhydroxytoluene in the warm vitam in A, add Crem ophor and m ix with the m olten Lutrol E grades. M anufacturing Granulate the dicalcium phosphate with Kollidon 30, dissolved in isopropanol or water and pass through a 0. M ix the obtained dried granules with the other com ponents, sieve and press with high com pression force using a vibrating hopper. Properties of the granules Colour: Yellow granules Flowability: Very good Dispersibility: 2. Rem ark 5 m l of Evening Prim rose oil (Epopure‚, Prim a Rosa, South Africa) contain 3. Properties of the granules Yellow hom ogeneous granules dispersible in cold water. Adm inistration About 1 g of the granules (= 1 sachet) correspond to two daily vitam in B and vitam in C requirem ents of adults. Chem ical stability of the granules (20–25 °C) Vitam in After production 4 M onths 6 M onths B1 100 % 100 % 93 % B2 100% 93% 80% B3 100 % 100 % 98 % B6 100 % 100 % 97 % B12 100 % 100 % 100 % C 100% 100% 97% 6. Rem ark Due to the high loss of riboflavin phosphate sodium it should be substi- tuted by riboflavin. Properties of the solution Yellow clear taste full solution having a density of 1. Rem ark For stability reasons it would be better to substitute thiam ine hydro- chloride by thiam ine m ononitrate in form ulation No. M anufacturing Dissolve the sucrose in the heat m ixture of glycerol, propylene glycol and water, cool to room tem perature and dissolve the other com ponents to obtain a clear solution. Chem ical stability of vitam in B1 (40°C, closed) 0 M onth 6 M onths 12 M onths Form ulation No. Rem ark These tablets could be com m ercialized in Europe as dietary food because all com ponents are allowed for this application. Properties of the solution A clear yellow solution was obtained having a pH of a about 4. Chem ical stability of thiam ine (40 °C, closed) 0 M onths 3 M onths 6 M onths 12 M onths Form ulation No. Rem arks These tablets could be com m ercialized in Europe as dietary food because all com ponents are allowed for this application. If the content uniform ity does not m eet the requirem ents it would be recom m ended to prepare a prem ix of the active ingredient with a sm all part of the Ludipress or with lactose m onohydrate before m ixing with the other com ponents of the form ulation. M anufacturing (W et granulation) Granulate m ixture I with isopropanol, dry, pass through a 0. Stability of appearance No change of the tablet colour during 3 m onths at 30 °C and 70% relative hum idity. Tablet properties Vitam in C content / Tablet 100 m g 500 m g 1000 m g W eight 250 m g 1250 m g 2500 m g Diam eter 8 m m 15 m m 20 m m Form biplanar biplanar biplanar Hardness 157 N >100 N >150 N Disintegration (water) 15 m in >15 m in 14 m in Friability <0. Rem ark This form ulation also is m entioned in “Standardzulassungen für Fertig- arzneim ittel”, Deutscher Apothekerverlag, 1988. Chem ical stability (40 °C, closed) 0 M onths 3 M onths 6 M onths Form ulation No. M anufacturing (Direct com pression) Dry the sodium bicarbonate during 1 hour at 100 °C, m ix with the other com ponents, pass all through a 0. M anufacturing (Direct com pression) M ix all com ponents, sieve and press to tablets of 335 m g weight. Influence of the com pression force on the tablet properties com pression force Property 7 kN 15 kN 22 kN Hardness 20 N 55 N 83 N Disintegration 1 m in 1– 2 m in 2 – 3 m in Friability 0. Rem ark These tablets could be com m ercialized in Europe as dietary food because all com ponents are allowed for this application. Rem ark These tablets could be com m ercialized in Europe as dietary food because all com ponents are allowed for this application. Stability of appearance No change of the tablet colour during 3 m onths at 30 °C and 70% relative hum idity. After the am poules have been heat-sterilized, they should be shaken for a short tim e, while they are still hot, to elim inate any separation of the phases that m ay have occurred. Rem ark These tablets could be com m ercialized in Europe as dietary food because all com ponents are allowed for this application. Rem ark These tablets could be com m ercialized in Europe as dietary food because all com ponents are allowed for this application. Rem ark These tablets could be com m ercialized in Europe as dietary food because all com ponents are allowed for this application.
Even impairment of the lower level functions of the nervous system discount 17.5mg zestoretic amex, for example buy zestoretic 17.5 mg free shipping, of sight generic zestoretic 17.5mg mastercard, hearing, or motor function, to some extent impairs his performance of these activities. Yet many of the highest level activities of man remain possible despite such impairment. Milton was blind, Beethoven was deaf, and Winston Churchill was not the last statesman to carry on after he had suffered a cerebro- vascular accident. The part of the brain essential to these highest level activities, without which they cannot be carried on, is the most recent evolutionary development and the part particularly well-developed in man: the cerebral hemispheres, the neopallium. It is this that must be intact for the performance of the creative and responsible tasks that confront a mature man and, in fact, for all those "conscious" activities that are part of being an alert, sentient, and civilized human being. Within the cerebral hemispheres are many discrete pathways which have to do with lower level functions, including those of sight, hearing, and the motor functions that have been mentioned. But the highest level functions, those necessary for the adequate expression of human needs, appetites, and drives, those which provide the mechanisms for symbolic activity ("memory," "abstraction," "cognition," "integration," "reason," and so on), and those which enable men to tolerate frustration, to deal effectively with threats, and to maintain effective and well- modulated defense reactions, do not appear to be localized within the hemispheres (24, 25). In carrying out these highest integrative functions, the cerebral hemispheres behave somewhat in the manner of a data-processing machine that has "digital" (or "counting") and "analogue" (or "meas- -39- uring") characteristics, as well as many other characteristics not yet duplicated by man- made apparatus (26). The cerebral hemispheres have no specific pathways associated with "abstraction," "cognition," "integration," "reason," or similar mental activities. Rather, they include a maze of potential pathways, over any of which the complex patterns of activity associated with the highest integrative functions may be set up. Thus, when any part of the hemispheres is damaged, none of the highest integrative activities are entirely lost, but the capacity to perform all is impaired to some extent. It is for this reason, undoubtedly, that anything that impairs the function of the cerebral hemispheres-direct injury, drugs, toxins, diseases, homeostatic disturbance of all sorts, isolation, sleep loss, fatigue, and some reactions to pain, hunger, and threats — ultimately produces a global impairment of the highest integrative activities. Yet it is also true that some high level functions of the brain are more vulnerable than others. It seems to be a characteristic of the central nervous system that those functions that are "newest" and most complex, those which have appeared most recently in evolutionary development, are most vulnerable and drop out first when the function of the brain is impaired. When they are impaired, the first functions lost are those that are thought to be the most complex and to have been acquired most recently by civilized man: the capacity to carry out the highest creative activities, to meet new, challenging, and complex situations, to deal with trying interpersonal relations, and to cope with repeated frustration (24, 25). Relatively small degrees of homeostatic derangement, fatigue, pain, sleep loss, or anxiety may impair these functions. As impairment of brain function continues, somewhat less complex activities deteriorate. There is a lessening of the speed and efficiency with which the ordinary tasks of daily life are carried out. Concern about "accuracy," "propriety," "moral rectitude," "honor," and "feelings of other people," and similar "socially oriented" behavior falls away, and an increased concern about sleep, rest, comfort, food, and other bodily needs becomes apparent (24, 25, 54, 67). These complex aspects of brain function may be distinctly impaired, whereas orientation, memory, recall, and the capacity to perform well on psychomotor tests are still intact. Memory becomes faulty, the capacity to recall remote events being re- -40- tained after memory for recent events is lost. Difficulty in simple computations becomes evident, and impairment of performance on tests becomes quite noticeable. It is at this point that misinterpretations, illusions, delusions, and hallucinations may appear, and "delirium" may occur. Large defects in memory and profound impairment of discrimination and judgment are evident. With further deterioration of brain function, loss of contact with reality and finally loss of consciousness occur. It is notorious that threats, pressures, and deprivations, skillfully manipulated by police and interrogators with long practice in their use, will "break" almost any man, "soften him up," "make him cooperate," and "make him talk. The "less civilized" behavior patterns, directed at comfort and survival, are brought to the fore in a man whose capacity for judgment and discrimination is diminished. Rationalizations come easier to him, and points that once seemed important are now unimportant. Various degrees of "willingness" exist so long as the brain has any "ability" whatsoever to give information. The "ability to give information" is a statement about the capacity of the brain to furnish information: the possibility that it can do so under any circumstances. It is easy to see why various police procedures often increase the willingness of men to give information. So far as one can tell, the willingness to give information is not determined by any constitutional factor or by the direct action of any agent from the outside, but by information already within the brain, what might be called its "directions for action. They are the sum total of those learned reactions that have -41- to do with "loyalty," "honor," "propriety," "security," and so on. As brain function is impaired, information derived from past experience generally becomes less potent as a guide for action, whereas information derived from the immediate experience, pain, thirst, discomfort, and threats to life, becomes more potent. The "attitude" is likely to change, and the man becomes more "willing" to do whatever is necessary to secure his comfort and survival. The new "attitude," the newly increased propensity, is directed toward doing whatever is necessary to secure comfort and survival. It is directed toward "compliance," toward doing what the situation seems to demand. This new state of the informant may be a trap to an interrogator, especially if he is a vigorous and persistent man with a good hypothesis as to what he might uncover. He is now dealing with a man who is likely to have lost some of his finer capacity for discrimination and judgment, whose insistent physiologic needs impel him toward ready solutions that may serve to relieve him of his discomfort, whose memory for details may be fuzzy and confused, and who is more than usually ready to accept a plausible suggestion. The source is, indeed, more prepared to talk, but he is also more likely to be inaccurate and to give false, misleading, incomplete, or inexact information, of a type like that which his interrogator happens to be seeking. The fact that the giving of this information does not redound to his credit or to his long-term self-interest and the fact that he is prepared to state that it is true, and later to defend his statements, should not be taken as evidence of its accuracy. Our simple hierarchical outline of the way that brain function falls off is generally true. All the disturbing influences that we have mentioned can be accompanied by the "brain syndrome," and can ultimately cause disorganization and unconsciousness. However, one cannot make a more exact statement, because the precise nature of the symptoms and the facility with which they are produced are dependent upon the personality of the prisoner, what has happened to him before, and how he views the circumstances in which he finds himself at the time (24, 25, 131). These factors have a great deal to do with the form of the "brain syndrome" produced by disturbances in homeostasis. They determine whether a man becomes garrulous or withdrawn, anxious or angry, paranoid or trusting. They likewise determine the form of the "brain syndrome" produced by isolation, sleep loss, and fatigue, and they further have an important influence upon his ability to withstand pain and hunger, and they -42- approach being an absolute determinant of whether or not a "threat" will produce a disorganizing reaction. If it is strongly imbedded in a man before his capture, it may continue to govern one aspect of his behavior right up to the point of delirium or unconsciousness, no matter what symptoms he may develop. Some people -criminals adhering to the "code of the underworld" (127) as well as prisoners of war adhering to the "finest military traditions" (119) — do not give information although they reach the point of disorganization or death. The evidence suggests that a learned reaction pattern, if sufficiently reinforced, can sometimes govern a specific aspect of behavior as long as a man retains the capacity to carry out that behavior. From the theoretical point of view it is hard to escape the conclusion that a man is best able to give accurate information when he is in an optimal state of health, rest, comfort, and alertness, and when he is under no threat. Any attempt to produce compliant behavior by procedures which produce tissue damage, disturbances of homeostasis, fatigue, sleep deprivation, isolation, discomfort, or disturbing emotional states carries with it the hazard of producing inaccuracy and unreliability. However, it is often necessary for the interrogator to question people who are experiencing moderately severe effects of illness, injury, fatigue, discomfort, or anxiety. A body of practical experience indicates that relatively reliable information can be obtained from most such people, if the information sought is neither complex nor extensive. Second, any informant in a threatening situation is liable to say whatever will please his captors, even though he may not do so intentionally. These ever-present hazards of interrogation are enhanced under adverse circumstances. It may be assumed, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, that the simpler, the briefer, and the more readily verifiable the information that is sought, the more likely is the evidence of the source to be of value. On the other hand, granting that various procedures designed to make men more compliant will impair their ability to give accurate information, do these procedures not cause men to give more information than they might otherwise have given?
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